difficile) is a spore-forming pathogen that typically causes symptoms in individuals with altered gut microbial flora, releasing toxins that can result in a range of disease manifestations from asymptomatic colonization to diarrhea, pseudomembranous
colitis, toxic megacolon, intestinal perforation, or, in the most severe cases, death.
colitis: not always caused by clostridium difficile," Case Reports in Medicine, vol.
colitis has a characteristic endoscopic appearance, with discrete, numerous, very adherent mucosal yellow plaques, which histologically are formed by necrotic epithelial cells, mucus, fibrin, and neutrophils.
One case of pseudomembranous
colitis in a breastfeeding infant and 2 cases of green teeth in neonates have been reported with ciprofloxacin use.
Patients with diarrhoea and demonstrable pseudomembranous
colitis at endoscopy or at histopathology were also diagnosed as having CDAD.
(3) Clostridium difficile has long known to be the culprit for pseudomembranous
colitis (PMC) and has become increasingly common in children, especially after antibiotic therapy.
Discontinuation is recommended if significant diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal cramping, or colitis (including pseudomembranous
The term ligneous conjunctivitis (LC) was used by Borel in 1933 for the first time to describe a rare form of chronic, bilateral, recurrent conjunctivitis which was characterized by development of fibrin-rich, woody-like, pseudomembranous
lesions mainly on the upper tarsal conjunctiva and less frequently on the lower eye lid and bulbar conjunctiva.
It may be responsible for 95% of all pseudomembranous
colitis cases and most cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in humans (SCHWAN et al., 2009).
The distribution of mucosal lesion's was: angular chelitis, gingivitis, herpetic stomatit, herpetic stomatit + angular chelitis, pseudomembranous
candidiasis + angular chelitis + gingivitis; fistula and herpetic labials.
Systemic candidiasis in a flock of canaries was previously found associated with central nervous system signs, as well as typical gastrointestinal lesions, characterized by pseudomembranous
necrotic patches that were easily peeled from the eroded mucosal surface.
Because of their immunocompromised state, hemodialysis patients and allograft recipients have increased susceptibility to candidal infections, such as pseudomembranous
, erythematous and chronic atrophic candidosis.