In case of prolonged painful muscle cramps or myokymia, excessive sweating, pseudohypertrophy
on examination, and findings of increased muscle enzymes; a diagnosis of Isaacs' syndrome should be considered.
(1, 2, 5, 8) Findings in chronic atrophic gastritis and/or pernicious anemia particularly involving the gastric body and fundus include atrophy of the mucosal glands, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic inflammation extending into the lamina propria, pseudohypertrophy
of the parietal glands, and intestinal metaplasia.
Proximal muscle weakness, muscular pain on exercise, pseudohypertrophy
due to muscle edema, decreased deep tendon reflexes, and stiffening in muscles are seen in hypothyroidism myopathy (1).
Pancreatic fat accumulation can be named as pancreatic lipomatosis, PS, fatty replacement, fatty infiltration, fatty pancreas, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy
, and nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) (3).
Additionally, the lumen of the left ventricle may be reduced and its walls may appear thickened during diastole as a result of decreased venous return to the left cardiac chambers ("pseudohypertrophy
") (BOON, 2011).
The Gower sign was not obvious, but pseudohypertrophy
could be seen in the right calf.
The pancreas may be enlarged and replaced with fat, known as lipomatous pseudohypertrophy
Ohfuji, "Generalized muscular steatosis (pseudohypertrophy
) in a heifer," Comparative Clinical Pathology, vol.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked, recessively inherited disease, typically characterized by a progressive skeletal muscle atrophy of proximate extremities and pseudohypertrophy
of the gastrocnemius muscle .
(steatosis) in a buffalo calf delivered by fetotomy.
(6) It is characterized by muscle weakness and muscle (pseudohypertrophy
).7 Patients present with muscle cramps, muscle stiffness, weakness, hyporeflexia and delayed deep tendon reflexes.