Human Vaccinia virus and Pseudocowpox
virus co-infection: Clinical description and phylogenetic characterization.
Differential diagnoses include, depending on the phase of the disease, anthrax, atypical mycobacteriosis, cowpox, pseudocowpox
(Milker's nodule), pyoderma, herpetic whitlow, tularemia, keratoacanthoma, fish-tank granuloma, and sporotrichosis [1, 2, 8].
is an affection caused by Pseudocowpox
virus of family Poxviridae and genus Parapoxvirus (James et al., 2006).
However, before and after milking, dipping of teats in antiseptic solutions, helped in prevention of diseases, like mastitis and herpetic mamilite (Almeida et al., 2008), BV and pseudocowpox
(de-Oliveira et al., 2011).
Differential diagnoses include pyoderma, herpetic whitlow, cowpox, pseudocowpox
(milker's nodule), cat-scratch disease, anthrax, tularemia, pri-mary inoculation tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, syphilitic chancre, sporotrichosis, keratoancanthoma, and pyogenic granuloma (5).
CE is caused by the contagious ecthyma virus (also known as orf virus and Parapoxvirus ovis) in the Poxviridae family and Parapoxvirus genus (which also includes the milker's nodule virus (pseudocowpox
) and bovine papular stomatitis virus).
Recent isolates of parapoxvirus of Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are closely related to bovine pseudocowpox
Negative-stain electron microscopy can confirm a parapoxvirus infection by demonstrating classic ovoid cross-hatched virions (Figure 2) but cannot distinguish orf virus from other parapoxviruses such as paravaccinia (pseudocowpox
) virus; serologic testing has the same limitation.
Other related viruses include pseudocowpox
in cows, and a disease called orf that affects sheep.
Bovine Pustular Stomatitis, Pseudocowpox
and Milker's Nodules.
Many poxviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus (e.g., vaccinia virus [VACV]) and Parapoxvirus (e.g., pseudocowpox
virus [PCPV]), are considered zoonotic viruses because their infections usually arise from human contact with infected domestic or sylvatic animal species (2).
In the genus Parapoxvirus, 4 species are currently recognized: Orf virus (ORFV), bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), pseudocowpox
virus (PCPV), and parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ) (3).