provirus


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provirus

 [pro-vi´rus]
a DNA transcript of an RNA virus that migrates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and integrates into the host genome by crossing over so that it will be thus replicated in the daughter cells.

pro·vi·rus

(prō-vī'rŭs),
The precursor of an animal virus, usually a retrovirus; theoretically analogous to the prophage in bacteria, the provirus is integrated in the nucleus of infected cells and can be activated in response to certain stimuli.

provirus

(prō′vī′rəs, prō-vī′-)
n. pl. provi·ruses
A form of a virus that allows it to be integrated into the genome of a host cell and to replicate in concert with the cell's genetic material without causing cell lysis.

pro′vi′ral (-rəl) adj.

pro·vi·rus

(prō-vī'rŭs)
The precursor of an animal virus; theoretically analogous to the prophage in bacteria, the provirus being integrated into the nucleus of infected cells.

provirus

the DNA of a VIRUS that has integrated into the DNA of the host CELL and is transmitted from one cell generation to the next in this state. No infective virus particles are produced. The provirus can excise from the host's DNA and resume a productive viral cycle with the production of virus particles.

pro·vi·rus

(prō-vī'rŭs)
The precursor of an animal virus; theoretically analogous to the prophage in bacteria, the provirus being integrated into the nucleus of infected cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Adicionalmente, se ha detectado el provirus en muestras de calostro el cual es muy importante en la alimentacion de los becerros en la lecheria especializada, lo que lo convierte en una importante fuente para la diseminacion del virus (Gutierrez et al., 2015).
This is problematic because very few latently infected cells contain an intact provirus [62], and therefore successful shock and kill will only result in a small absolute reduction in the number of intact proviruses.
However, the modification of the coding sequence could not completely silence the HIV provirus, and the unmodified viral genes were still expressed under the effect of long terminal repeat (LTR) [15].
In this study we simulated at a systemic level, the alterations of cellular pathways when HIV-1 provirus integrates into genes by turning them off and produce dysregulation of several local signaling pathways among others in MAPK and Wnt signaling process.
because glutathione and selenium depletion leads to enhanced activation of oxidatively activated transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and Sp1 that enhance the transcription of the HIV provirus gene in infected leukocytes) (Christophersen et al 2012).
(5) Because of nonspecific findings and a resemblance to other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, the differential diagnosis can be challenging on histology and requires the use of HTLV-1 antibodies to HTLV-1 provirus DNA in tumor cells to label ATLL-associated skin lesions.
Studies have shown that FeLV viral RNA and provirus DNA are better predictors of progressive and latent infections, respectively [15,16].
Pomerantz, "Human immunodeficiency virus type I provirus is demonstrated in peripheral blood monocytes in vivo: a study utilizing an in situ polymerase chain reaction," AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol.
In Jurkat based HIV-1 latency model, TNF-alpha consistently activates latent HIV-1 provirus. However, in primary CD4 T cell model, TNF-alpha does not appear too effective to purge HIV-1 from latent reservoirs [132, 133].
Since the virions are almost undetectable from extracellular matrix, the viral burden is quantified as the proportion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells that carry an integrated HTLV-1 provirus. About 90-95% of the proviral load in chronic HTLV-1 infection is carried by [CD4.sup.+] T cells and 5-10% by [CD8.sup.+] T cells [10-13].
Knowles, "Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1," Immunogenetics, vol.