10) Proventriculotomy may be used to access the proventriculus and muscular ventriculus; however, to avoid the risks of invasive surgery, a flexible or rigid endoscope with appropriate retrieval forceps or device may be used to remove ingested objects.
Proventriculotomy or ventriculotomy has been reported as an effective means for removing gastric foreign bodies in several avian species, including an ostrich (Struthio camelus), (12) a brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli), (13) and a sarus crane (Grus antigone).
and ventriculotomy have been used to remove gastric foreign bodies in birds.
They also include more invasive techniques such as surgical proventriculotomy and ventriculotomy.
Endoscopy is often the preferred method of avian surgeons for retrieving foreign bodies in birds; however, in cases where the foreign body cannot be retrieved by endoscopy, a proventriculotomy is often performed.
Indications included oropharyngeal defects (1,2) and proventriculotomy postoperative care.
Proventriculotomy in ostriches: 18 cases (1990-1992).
Several techniques have been described for proventriculotomy and ventriculotomy.
Proventriculotomy to relieve foreign body impaction in ostriches.
2) Techniques have been described, including proventriculotomy