While in the current report the general characteristics of the nematodes and the eggs found in the female uterus are in agreement with those of nematodes from the order Spirurida and the genus Procyrnea (Zhang et al., 2004; Quentin et al., 1983; Vicente et al., 1995), there is no previous publication in which a Procyrnea species is associated with this kind of gross and microscopic proventricular
lesions described herein.
When the BD was supplemented with ASX and His, however, the effects of ASX on reducing the incidence of proventricular
lesions was not obvious.
Novel Borna virus in psittacine birds with proventricular
Dilation Disease: A Review of Research, Literature, Species Differences, Diagnostics, Prognosis, and Treatment.
Different species showed different patterns of proventricular
trituration in adult carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).
Beasley, "Experimental reproduction of proventriculitis using homogenates of proventricular
tissue," Poultry Science, vol.
Similarly, the hemin storage gene is responsible for proventricular
The gastrointestinal tracts from each bird were later thawed and the contents removed and separated into esophageal, proventricular
, and ventricular contents.
A serious gastrointestinal disease of birds is proventricular
dilatation disease, (PDD).
Therefore, GI contrast studies performed under sedation will produce the same diagnostic results as in unsedated birds if GI obstruction, luminal distension (eg, proventricular
dilatation), or intracoelomic nongastroinstestinal mass effects (eg, organomegaly or neoplasia) are to be investigated.