The parastylid, protostylid
, metastylid and entostylid are clearly visible with their respective conids.
These traits are UI1 shoveling (0-1, 2-3, 4+), UM2 hypocone (0-1, 2-3, 4+), UM1 Carabelli's trait (0-1, 2-4, 5+), and LM1 protostylid
(0, 1, 2+).
In addition, there was a higher prevalence of semi-shovel shaped maxillary incisors (45.6%) and protostylid
cusps on mandibular molars (37.5%) in the Southern Chinese and Hong Kong population.
PT was defined as 'parastyle' when it is located on upper molars and as 'protostylid
' when it is located on lower molars (Dahlberg, 1945; Dahlberg, 1950).
, mesostylid and metastylid are prominent.
The evolutionary significance of the protostylid
. Am J Phys Anthrop .1950; 8(1):15-25.
The most common features were the shovel-shaped central and lateral incisors, high frequencies of the groove and fossa forms of Carabelli's cusp, the metaconules, the Y6 cusp pattern, layered fold, protostylid
and cusp 6.
By studying Amazonian populations belonging to ethnic groups (ticuna, huitoto, and cocama), Aragon et al (2008) have described the presence of winging, central and lateral shoveled incisors, high frequency Carabelli's cusp sulcus and fossae, Y6 or Y7 cusp pattern, deflecting wrinkle, protostylid
, and cuspid 6.
More specifically, winging of the central maxillary incisors, and peg shape and congenital absence of the maxillary third molar generally increase through time among the samples, while the protostylid
of the mandibular first molar also increases through time among some of the Azapa Valley samples.
and parastylid are pillar-like in appearance.
For amazon groups belonging to Ticuna, Huitoto and Cocama communities, we described the presence of winging, central and lateral shovel shape incisives, high frequency of groove and fossa forms in the Carabelli cusp, cuspid pattern Y6 or Y7, deflecting wrinkle, protostylid
and sixes cuspid (Aragon et al., 2008).
The protoconid is oval in shape supported by robust protostylid
which is seriated.