Detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity by imaging 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin
Mice were divided into four groups of 6 animals each: (1) control normal chow diet; (2) HFD; (3) HFD treated for the last 8 weeks with cobalt protoporphyrin
(CoPP) (once/week a dose of 5 mg/100 g, bw); and (4) HFD treated for the last 8 weeks with CoPP and the last 3 weeks with tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP at a dose of 20 mg/100 g BW), an inhibitor of HO activity (twice/week).
Regula et al., "Sensitization and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of gastrointestinal tumors with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin
IX (PPIX): a pilot study," Neoplasma, vol.
Recent studies have focused on incorporating specific substrates of BOx such as bilirubin, quinones, syringaldazine, and protoporphyrin
derivatives such as protoporphyrin
IX iron (III) (PPFeIII), protoporphyrin
IX dimethyl ester (PPDE), and octaethylporphyrin (OEP) towards appropriate orientation that can be convenient for DET-type electrocatalysis .
Ferrochelatase catalyzes the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin
to form heme.
A separate study of 12 healthy adults found that pretreatment with an ablative fractional laser significantly intensifies protoporphyrin
IX fluorescence to a larger extent than curettage, microdermabrasion, microneedling, and nonablative fractional laser (JAMA Derm.
The two pigments found in the eggshells were protoporphyrin
Any genetic defects that impact this process can interrupt the body's ability to produce heme; the decreased heme production leads to a buildup of protoporphyrin
Thus more protoporphyrin
is formed which is incorporated into the hemoglobin molecule in place of heme.
Cystatin-C, zinc protoporphyrin
, urine creatinine clearance testing, ASO antibody titers, anti-DNAase antibody titers, microsomal antibodies, urine microalbumin, urine cultures for crystals and bacterial burdens, for example, are useful in uncovering suspected renal impairment.
In a condition such as IBD, further analyses may be required to confirm IDA, such as reticulocyte hemoglobin content, percentage of hypochromic red blood cells, transferrin saturation index, and zinc protoporphyrin
, but these tests are not yet widely available (Table 3).
(1) Assembly of 4 pyrrole rings forms the tetrapyrrole ring protoporphyrin
, a precursor of several organic molecules.