protooncogene


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pro·to·on·co·gene

(prō'tō-on'kō-jēn),
A gene conserved long on the evolutionary scale present in the normal human genome, that appears to have a role in normal cellular physiology and is often involved in regulation of normal cell growth or proliferation; as a result of somatic mutations, these genes may become oncogenic; products of protooncognes may have important roles in normal cellular differentiation.

pro·to·on·co·gene

(prō'tō-on'kō-jēn)
A gene in the normal human genome that appears to have a role in normal cellular physiology; involved in regulation of normal cell growth or proliferation; as a result of somatic mutations, these genes may become oncogenic; products of protooncognes may have important roles in normal cellular differentiation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of trichloroethylene and its metabolites, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid, on the methylation and expression of c-Jun and c-Myc protooncogenes in mouse liver: prevention by methionine.
To determine whether and/or to what extent these agents alter the expression of protooncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, or other genes that regulate mitogenesis or apoptosis, tissue samples from a diverse population of individuals need to be analyzed.
[4] Human genes: EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; TP53, tumor protein p53; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; KRAS, Kirsten ratsarcoma viral oncogene homolog; ERBB2, erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; BRAF, B-Raf protooncogene, serine/ threonine kinase.
[9] Human genes: JAK3, Janus kinase 3; KRAS, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; GNAS, GNAS complex locus; AKT1, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1; APC, adenomatous polyposis coli; MET, met protooncogene; PIK3CA, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase; RB1, retinoblastoma 1; STK11, serine/threonine kinase 11; TP53, tumor protein p53; SMAD4, SMAD family member 4; ATM, ataxia telangiectasia mutated; IDH1, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+); NRAS, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog.
The protooncogene c-kit and c-kit ligand in human disease.
The best characterized tumorigenic molecular changes in FTC are activating point mutations in genes of the protooncogene family comprising HRAS [5] (v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), and NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog] and in the PAX8/PPARG (paired box 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) fusion oncogene rearrangement (3); however, RAS gene mutations (a) occur only in 10%-25% of FTC cases, (b) are also seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma, and (c) occur equally often in FA and FTC (3-5).
Our 2006 Clinical Chemistry report demonstrated that mutation scanning of RET (ret protooncogene) detects mutations causative of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (3).
The noncontinuous probes with omission of 1-3 nt of the template sequence were designed to mask nontargeted sequence variants such as benign polymorphic sites in RET protooncogene and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3) [5] (3).
Structural analysis of alpha-enolase: mapping the functional domains involved in down-regulation of the c-myc protooncogene. J Biol Chem 2000;275:5958-65.
For example, identical nearest neighbor changes may occur at different locations in the same amplicon, such as identical base changes at multiple cysteine residues in the RET protooncogene (32).
(6.) Slamon DJ, Godolphin W, Jones LA, Holt JA, Wong SG, Keith DE, Levin WJ, Stuart SG, Udove J, Ullrich A.Studies of the Her-2/neu protooncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer.