protogyny


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Related to protogyny: protandry

protogyny

see protandry.

protandry, protogyny

a state of hermaphroditism in which the male gonad matures before the female gonad.
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Gardner (1982) suggested that protogyny occurs almost without exception in Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia, including T.
Otherwise, classification was based on a number of criteria such as breeding system (gynodioecy, protandry, protogyny, and self-incompatibility), frequency of different genders, mating system estimates based on pollen/ovule ratios or open pollinated seed set, and any additional insights by the author(s).
Protogyny and protandry are the underlying mechanisms favouring allogamy in monoecious palms.
Diverging results were found in tests developed by Mussury and Fernandes (2000) in the municipality of Dourados, Brazil, with cultivar CTC-4, and by Delaplane and Mayer (2000), in Georgia, USA, in which they concluded that, when the flower opens, its stigma is already receptive but the anthers are not yet dehiscent, verifying protogyny in the flowers.
The emergence patterns of males and females were strikingly similar, with no evidence for protandry or protogyny.
The sex allocation pattern of various populations of spotted sand bass are thought to vary from functional gonochorism to strict protogyny.
Selecting for low ASI or even protogyny (negative ASI) under optimal conditions, as proposed by Westgate (1997), should avoid the delicate application of stress, but is likely to be ineffective because of the strong G x T effects and absence of relationship between yield under optimal and stressed treatments.
In this case, protandry would be expected to select for female-biased allocation in early- compared to late-opening flowers (and protogyny for the opposite pattern).
Monandric protogyny occurs when males develop only from females (secondary males) through a transitional phase, whereas diandric protogyny involves 2 pathways for male development: directly from juveniles (primary males) or through sex change from mature females (Reinboth, 1967).
Although our experiments were not done with inbreds, poor synchronization of pollen shed with silking in seed fields could result in situations where pollen becomes available when silks are older and less receptive, in a situation analogous to protogyny.