In 2006 Susan Ackerman and colleagues published in Nature that misincorporation of the wrong proteinogenic
amino acid, even at the background error rate (I error per 1,000-10,000 codons), can lead to neuro-degeneration in mice.
Made up from 80 percent protein and 30 percent glutamine dipeptides, typically bonded by L-Alanine and L-Glycine, Complex 12 is a highly functional ingredient offering a complete balance of proteinogenic
and anti-inflammatory amino acids that work synergistically to deliver the optimum ratio of protein and carbohydrate, to replenish spent glycogen stores and aid muscle growth.
Over half of the chapters deal with conceptual strategies and synthetic opportunities available for the rational synthesis or targeted modification of such compound classes as phenolic natural products, nucleoside analogs, monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, iminosugars, proteinogenic
amino acids, nitriles, hydroxyl acids, and various oxidation products.