protein synthesis


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pro·tein syn·the·sis

the process in which individual amino acids, whether of exogenous or endogenous origin, are connected to each other in peptide linkage in a specific order dictated by the sequence of nucleotides in DNA; this governing sequence is conveyed to the synthesizing apparatus in the ribosomes by mRNA, formed by base-pairing on the DNA template.

protein synthesis

The manufacturing of proteins from amino acids. Within cells this process is guided by the specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA.

protein synthesis

The construction of protein molecules from AMINO ACIDS. This occurs in the cell CYTOPLASM on the basis of the GENETIC CODE in the DNA. Sections of DNA that code for the particular protein are first transcribed to MESSENGER RNA and this passes out of the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm. There, one or more ribosomes attach themselves to one end of the mRNA molecule and move along it to effect transcription, using, in the process, the sequence of RNA bases to indicate which amino acids should be selected from the cell pool and in what order. In this way the correct amino acids are linked together to form polypeptides and these are then joined to form the particular protein.

protein synthesis

a complex anabolic process occurring in all cells, by which genes control the precise structure of proteins manufactured in the cell. The following summary of events refers to a EUKARYOTE cell:
  1. (a) DNA molecules in the chromosomes of the nucleus carry specific messages about how proteins are to be constructed.
  2. (b) the DNA of each gene carries instructions about one protein chain (see ONE GENE/ONE ENZYME HYPOTHESIS).
  3. (c) the two polynucleotide chains of the DNA molecule separate and messenger RNA nucleotides become attached in complementary pairing, the process being called TRANSCRIPTION.
  4. (d) the mRNA molecule leaves the DNA which reforms a double helix.
  5. (e) mature mRNA (see RNA PROCESSING) leaves the nucleus via pores in the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE and enters the cytoplasm where it becomes attached to one or more RIBOSOMES (See also POLYRIBOSOMES) near the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
  6. (f) with the aid of transfer RNA, TRANSLATION of the message in the mRNA takes place, with the formation of a POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN which later becomes coiled (see PROTEIN, POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS).
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, we saw that myostatin activated proteolysis and inhibited protein synthesis in primary culture of neonatal cardiomyocytes and led to an increase in LC3-II and in the amount of polyubiquitinated proteins in parallel with a decrease in p-P70S6K.
He pointed out that plum extract caused a significant increase in protein synthesis and a significant decrease in protein degradation.
The study of embryos and larvae of highly fecund marine invertebrates has been foundational to advances in developmental biology, and has revealed complex networks of genes whose spatial and temporal expression patterns regulate rapid rates of protein synthesis and developmental programs (Davidson, 1976, 2010).
Leucine is the only dietary amino acid that has the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and has been found to slow the degradation of muscle tissue by increasing the synthesis of muscle proteins.
Although there was no clear effect of the pattern of protein intake in our study, we observed a definitive effect of a higher amount of protein intake in mixed meals on whole body net protein balance and muscle protein synthesis," the authors wrote.
When young adults halve their protein intake (from 30 to 15 grams/meal), their muscle protein synthesis is also reduced by approximately 50%.
The discovery measures protein production, a process known as translation, and shows that protein synthesis is not only fundamental to how stem cells are regulated, but also is critical to their regenerative potential.
They looked at eIF2alpha phosphorylation and the regulation of protein synthesis in the mice's hippocampus region and then compared these levels with those of post-mortem human AD patients.
Excessive elF4E signaling and exaggerated protein synthesis also may play a role in a range of neurological disorders, including fragile X syndrome, a genetic condition that causes a range of developmental difficulties.
Protein synthesis, which is sometimes called mRNA translation, is the process of cells making proteins.
This may be due to a direct effect of amino acids on signaling pathways that control muscle protein synthesis.
As an antimicrobial agent, tigecycline is known to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to their ribosomes.