protein synthesis


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pro·tein syn·the·sis

the process in which individual amino acids, whether of exogenous or endogenous origin, are connected to each other in peptide linkage in a specific order dictated by the sequence of nucleotides in DNA; this governing sequence is conveyed to the synthesizing apparatus in the ribosomes by mRNA, formed by base-pairing on the DNA template.

protein synthesis

The manufacturing of proteins from amino acids. Within cells this process is guided by the specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA.

protein synthesis

The construction of protein molecules from AMINO ACIDS. This occurs in the cell CYTOPLASM on the basis of the GENETIC CODE in the DNA. Sections of DNA that code for the particular protein are first transcribed to MESSENGER RNA and this passes out of the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm. There, one or more ribosomes attach themselves to one end of the mRNA molecule and move along it to effect transcription, using, in the process, the sequence of RNA bases to indicate which amino acids should be selected from the cell pool and in what order. In this way the correct amino acids are linked together to form polypeptides and these are then joined to form the particular protein.

protein synthesis

a complex anabolic process occurring in all cells, by which genes control the precise structure of proteins manufactured in the cell. The following summary of events refers to a EUKARYOTE cell:
  1. (a) DNA molecules in the chromosomes of the nucleus carry specific messages about how proteins are to be constructed.
  2. (b) the DNA of each gene carries instructions about one protein chain (see ONE GENE/ONE ENZYME HYPOTHESIS).
  3. (c) the two polynucleotide chains of the DNA molecule separate and messenger RNA nucleotides become attached in complementary pairing, the process being called TRANSCRIPTION.
  4. (d) the mRNA molecule leaves the DNA which reforms a double helix.
  5. (e) mature mRNA (see RNA PROCESSING) leaves the nucleus via pores in the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE and enters the cytoplasm where it becomes attached to one or more RIBOSOMES (See also POLYRIBOSOMES) near the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
  6. (f) with the aid of transfer RNA, TRANSLATION of the message in the mRNA takes place, with the formation of a POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN which later becomes coiled (see PROTEIN, POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS).
References in periodicals archive ?
Once again, protein breakdown increases, but now protein synthesis decreases.
Collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis by smooth muscle cells were stimulated by Dex with maximal stimulation at 0.1 [micro]M.
While RNA was known also to play a role in protein synthesis, the exact nature of that role had been unclear.
The research and development activities will leverage Sutro's proprietary cell-free protein synthesis and site-specific conjugation platforms, which facilitate precision design and rapid empirical optimisation of protein conjugates, to discover and develop best-in-class immune-modulating cytokine derivatives for both oncology and autoimmune indications.
These changes have been attributed to the blunted anabolic sensitivity of the response of muscle protein to protein intake due to a disruption in the regulation of muscle protein turnover and the imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown.
In young calves, amino acids are not only regarded as important raw materials for body protein synthesis, but plasma amino acids concentration is also widely accepted to be important regulators of feed intake and metabolic pathways [14].
In this study, we measured the metabolic cost of protein synthesis and determined whether this cost was influenced by genotype, phenotype, or environment.
In lactating dairy cows, AAs play a significant role in mammary protein synthesis. The previous literature on AA metabolism has mainly focused on balanced diets, which are necessary to maintain and enhance milk protein synthesis in lactating cows [7].
"A net gain in protein balance (i.e., synthesis minus breakdown) is called an anabolic response, as opposed to a catabolic response caused by the rate of protein breakdown exceeding the rate of protein synthesis. An anabolic response refers to a gain of muscle protein, but can involve the entire body."
STRO-001 and STRO-002 were developed using Sutro's proprietary cell-free protein synthesis and site-specific conjugation platforms, which facilitate precision design and rapid empirical optimization of protein conjugates to treat cancer and other diseases.
Cytoplasmic growth in meristematic cells is largely constrained by protein synthesis and is coupled to cell division to maintain cell size homeostasis.
High protein synthesis levels could represent an Achilles' heel to eradicating cancer-initiating cells," said Cristian Bellodi of Lund University.