Although the protectoral
court has been viewed widely as Augustan and monarchical in all but name, Knoppers's manuscript evidence and a late protectoral
portrait suggest that Cromwell's own style remained scrupulously plain and non-regal.
One particular problem is that, while there may have been no royal court during the 1650s, from 1653 until 1659 there was a protectoral court.
The picture that is emerging, of a protectoral court peopled not only with stylish young courtiers and imposing older statesmen but also with a large number of personal and liveried servants, sits uneasily alongside the popular view of a rough-hewn, puritanical Oliver Cromwell.
The key problem with the Humble Petition was that it had not been designed as a protectoral
constitution at all.
Like the queen's cookery book, The Court & Kitchin makes the case for monarchy, but now from its alleged opposite: the parsimonious and vulgar Protectoral
Laura Lunger Knoppers examines the early images of Cromwell as his star ascended, at his Protectoral
apogee, and after his death.
Careful use is made of the varied descriptions and analysis of the nature of Protectoral
power offered by foreign ambassadors to their governments and to Oliver himself.
With the establishment of the Protectorate, Norbrook traces both the attempted republicanizing of Cromwell and protectoral
Augustanism (evinced by Fisher and especially Waller), part of what he sees as a trend back to monarchy that culminated in Cromwell's royal funeral.
5) Although David Piper's seminal 1958 study looked at the "face itself of Cromwell, warts and all,"(6) Piper's more extended concern was with "the chase of the crown after Cromwell,"(7) ending with the apparent merging of protectoral
and monarchical iconography.