As a result of selection for protandry
of males, early matured males develop faster and have a smaller body size than conspecific females (Abrams et al.
and mate assessment in the warbiter Decticus verrucivorus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).
Scriber, "The contributions of larval growth and pupal duration to protandry
in the black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes," Oecologia, vol.
in knobbed whelk may be opportunistic, and not every individual may be capable of it.
and wind pollination makes maize suitable for maximum cross-pollination.
Sexual development in fish is characterized by many factors, including genetic and environmental, male and female heterogametes, single gene and polygenic systems, protandry
, protogyny, social influence on sexual determination and many combinations and variations between and with these systems.
Despite this diversity, Robbrecht (1988) pointed out the presence of three reproductive strategies common in Rubiaceae-distyly, morphologically characterized by the presence of two inter-compatible floral morphs, which is generally observed in species of Rubioideae (Barrett, 1992); stylar pollen presentation involving protandry
and pollen presentation in the style which is generally recorded in Ixoroideae (De Block and Igerscheim, 2001; Nilsson et al., 1990) and the occurrence of unisexual flowers in certain species almost restricted to Theligoneae and Anthospermae (Robbrecht, 1988).
Protogyny and protandry
are the underlying mechanisms favouring allogamy in monoecious palms.
Judging from the few species that have been studied, most exhibit protandry
, their sex changing from male to female with fish growth.