prosthetics


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prosthesis

 [pros-the´sis] (pl. prosthe´ses) (Gr.)
an artificial substitute for a missing part, such as an eye, limb, or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.
Artificial Limb. Advances in the field of surgical amputation and the art of designing artificial limbs have made it possible for persons who have lost a limb to be equipped with a prosthesis that functions so efficiently, and so closely resembles the original in appearance, that they can resume normal activities with the disability passing almost unnoticed.
Materials Used in the Prosthesis. A variety of materials can be used for the manufacture of artificial limbs. Wood, especially willow, is the most popular because it is comparatively light and resilient, and is easily shaped. Aluminum or an aluminum alloy is used when lightness is particularly desirable, such as in a limb for an aged person. Plastic limbs are also available. Leather and various metals are used for reinforcement and control.
Powering the Limb. Most artificial limbs are powered by the muscles, either those remaining in the residual limb or other available muscles. The muscles of the residual limb often can be considerably strengthened by physical therapy. Muscle power can be reinforced by means of springs, straps, gears, locks, levers, or, in some cases, hydraulic mechanisms.
The Artificial Lower Limb. The most commonly fitted artificial limb is the knee-jointed leg, used by persons whose lower limbs have been amputated above the knee. This prosthesis is powered by the hip and remaining thigh muscles, which kick the leg forward. The key points in such a limb are the socket, where it fits onto the residual limb, the knee, and the ankle. The possibility of walking with a normal gait depends primarily on the successful alignment of the socket joint; the knee usually consists of a joint centered slightly behind that of the natural leg, as this has been found to afford greater stability; sometimes the ankle joint is omitted and flexibility of the ankle achieved by the use of a rubber foot.
The Artificial Upper Limb. The choice of a particular artificial upper limb depends largely on the person's occupation. There are many different types, ranging from the purely functional, which will enable a person to perform heavy work, to the purely cosmetic, which aims only at looking as natural as possible. Those persons whose work requires them to do heavy lifting are often fitted with a “pegarm,” a short limb without an elbow joint, which is easily controlled and has great leverage.
The Artificial Hand. There are many different types of artificial hands. Many artificial upper limbs are so constructed that they can be fitted with a selection of different hands, depending on the type of work to be done. Researchers generally agree that the various types of hooks offer the greatest functional efficiency. These reproduce the most powerful function of natural hands—the pressure between thumb and forefinger. There are also artificial hands that combine a certain amount of utility with cosmetic value, often by means of a cosmetic glove covering a mechanical hand; others are designed simply for appearance, though they may offer some support as well.

Most hooks and hands are mechanically connected to the opposite shoulder and operated by a shrugging motion. However, a procedure known as kineplasty uses the person's own arm and chest muscles to work the device. In this method, selected muscles are tunneled under by surgery and lined by skin. Pegs adapted to the tunnels can then be made to move an artificial hand mechanism. Kineplasty is used when skill rather than strength is desired.
Protecting the Residual Limb (Stump). In a person with an artificial limb, there is always a danger of irritation or infection. A sock is worn to cover the residual limb, and this should be washed daily; the residual limb itself should also be washed regularly and carefully, particularly between skin folds. When the artificial limb is not being used, the residual limb should be exposed to the air if possible.
Types of lower limb prostheses. A, Below-knee endoskeletal prosthesis. The strength is derived from the inner endoskeleton. B, Below-knee exoskeletal prosthesis. The strength is derived from the outer exoskeleton. C, Above-knee endoskeletal prosthesis. D, Above-knee exoskeletal prosthesis. Exoskeletal (E) and endoskeletal (F) hip disarticulation prostheses. From Myers, 1995.
Angelchik prosthesis a C-shaped silicone device used in the management of reflux esophagitis; it can also be placed around the distal esophagus during a laparotomy. (
Placement of the Angelchik antireflux prosthesis. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2002.
)
Austin Moore prosthesis a metallic implant used in hip arthroplasty.
Charnley prosthesis an implant for hip arthroplasty consisting of an acetabular cup and a relatively small femoral head component that form a low-friction joint.
penile prosthesis see penile prosthesis.

pros·thet·ics

(pros-thet'iks),
The art and science of making and adjusting artificial parts of the human body. See: anaplastology.

prosthetics

(prŏs-thĕt′ĭks)
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of medicine or surgery that deals with the production and application of artificial body parts.

pros′the·tist (prŏs′thĭ-tĭst) n.

pros·thet·ics

(pros-thet'iks)
The art and science of making and adjusting artificial parts of the human body.

Prosthetics

Mechanical devices that replace missing body parts.
Mentioned in: Osteopathy

pros·thet·ics

(pros-thet'iks)
The art and science of making and adjusting artificial parts of the human body.
References in periodicals archive ?
On June 4, the two debuted what they claim is the first-of-its-kind prosthetic at Tattoo Motor Show 2016, a convention in Davezieux, France.A video of Tenet inking his first tattoo with their kickass collaboration was posted to Steampunk Tendencies' Facebook page on June 7 and the video has since racked up more than 1 million views.
With the move, Ottobock has become the exclusive distributor of the BiOM prosthetic ankle in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Scandinavian markets.
June's training seminar included tours of the Tampa Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center and the Tampa VA Medical Center, as well as classroom training and presentations from VA's Tampa prosthetics contracting team, the prosthetic and sensory aids team and PVA.
"The prosthetics here costs a third of what it does in South Africa," he said, adding Mediclinic had also extended help to get him going.
4) Chhouk the elephant Young elephant Chhouk was fitted with a prosthetic left foot after being found wandering in the Cambodian wilderness 5) Tara the dog had her front paws amputated after being poisoned and left to die in Romania.
On Thursday, she showed off a new prosthetic that will help her reclaim a little bit of her personal style: a ''high-definition'' realistic silicone leg that can be worn with high heels.
To correct this deficiency, on July 8, 1947, all contact representatives (prosthetic) were transferred to Medical Divisions in regional offices; a Prosthetic Applicants Unit under supervision of the Chief, Professional Section, was established in each regional office Medical Division, and a Prosthetic Appliances Section was set up in the medical service of each branch office.
In 1950 the name was again changed to the American Orthotics and Prosthetics Association, or AOPA.
The aluminium ring pulls are melted down and used to produce hinges or joints that hold the plastic parts - which are also recycled - of the prosthetic legs together.
Using the robot system, Marasco and his team had each participant sit at a table, with the prosthetic arm unattached but arranged in a natural position.
The researchers conducted the study on six clients of Nunnery Orthotic and Prosthetic Technologies, who were hooked up to dozens of electrodes, wore shoes containing 99 pressure sensors, and had 40 light-reflective markers on their body, which were tracked by eight cameras in a room to collect the data necessary for the research.
(A) An expert in prosthetics made an artificial tail for Winter.