prospective study


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study

 [stud´e]
a careful examination of a phenomenon; see also design.
cohort study prospective study.
cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s.
electrophysiological s's (EPS) studies from within the heart of its electrical activation and response to electrical stimuli and certain drugs. In general they include intravenous and/or intra-arterial placement of one or more electrode catheters at sites in the atria, ventricles, or coronary sinus, and sometimes the pulmonary artery or aorta. They record activity or stimulate the heart at various rates and cadences and are aids in the evaluation of electrophysiologic properties such as automaticity, conduction, and refractoriness. They also initiate and terminate tachycardias, map the sequence of activation, and aid in evaluation of patients for various forms of therapy and for the response to therapy. During these studies catheter ablation procedures, such as radio frequency ablation and electrical ablation, may be performed.
flow study uroflowmetry.
longitudinal study one in which participants, processes, or systems are studied over time, with data being collected at multiple intervals. The two main types are prospective studies and retrospective studies. It contrasts with a cross-sectional s.
pilot study a smaller version of a proposed research study, conducted to refine the methodology of the later one. It should be as similar to the proposed study as possible, using similar subjects, the same setting, and the same techniques of data collection and analysis.
prospective study an epidemiologic study in which the groups of individuals (cohorts) are selected on the bases of factors that are to be examined for possible effects on some outcome. For example, the effect of exposure to a specific risk factor on the eventual development of a particular disease can be studied. The cohorts are then followed over a period of time to determine the incidence rates of the outcomes being studied as they relate to the original factors in question. Called also cohort study.



The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
retrospective study an epidemiologic study in which participating individuals are classified as either having some outcome (cases) or lacking it (controls); the outcome may be a specific disease, and the persons' histories are examined for specific factors that might be associated with that outcome. Cases and controls are often matched with respect to certain demographic or other variables but need not be. As compared to prospective studies, retrospective studies suffer from drawbacks: certain important statistics cannot be measured, and large biases may be introduced both in the selection of controls and in the recall of past exposure to risk factors. The advantage of the retrospective study is its small scale, usually short time for completion, and its applicability to rare diseases, which would require study of very large cohorts in prospective studies. See also prospective s.
urinary flow study uroflowmetry.
voiding pressure study simultaneous measurement of bladder contraction, urinary flow, and sphincter electromyogram.

prospective study

A study design which seeks to assess the association between a hypothesised risk factor and an illness by sampling both exposed and unexposed  subjects (or intervention and non-intervention groups) and then following them for the period of study.

Examples
Concurrent cohort studies, randomised controlled trials.

prospective study

Epidemiology A long-term predictive study designed to observe outcomes or events that occur after identifying a group of subjects to be studied; PSs collect data as the events being evaluated occur; PSs allow testing of hypothesized cause-and-effect relationships, and determine the effect of a therapy on disease progression. See Cohort analytic study. Cf Retrospective study.
References in periodicals archive ?
Distribution of Cases of GI Perforation of Various Aetiology, Retrospective Study Year TRA I/V APP ENTE TB UNK MI Total 2013 6 4 1 2 2 2 0 17 2014 9 1 4 3 3 1 0 21 2015 7 3 0 2 3 3 3 21 Total 22 8 5 7 8 6 3 59 Prospective Study Year TRA I/V APP ENTE TB UNK MI Total 2016 5 4 2 4 3 4 4 26 2017 7 2 4 5 1 1 1 21 Total 12 6 6 9 4 5 5 47 Table 2.
The most common drugs responsible for ACDRs in prospective study were betamethasone, isoniazid and rifampicin for acneform eruption, while metronidazole and paracetamol for FDE.
As part of a well-known and ongoing prospective study known as the Nurses' Health Study, the Harvard School of Public Health determined specific type of fat intake in 80,082 women ages 34 to 59 with validated questionnaires over a 14-year period.
The MACS, which began in 1984, is an ongoing, multicenter, prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV infection in homosexual and bisexual men.
The prospective study enrolled 28 women, 14 of whom received epidural analgesia.
Functional restoration with behavioral support: A one-year prospective study of patients with chronic low back pain.
194) recommends: "The source of isolated hematuria must always be ascertained, and this means a detailed examination of the urinary tract by cystoscopy, retrograde pyelography, and arteriography to disclose tumor, stone, cysts, or other cause." Bard has reported a prospective study of 125 women evaluated for asymptomatic microhematuria.
The clinical study is a multi-center, single arm, evaluator-blind prospective study evaluating the safety and efficacy of Bovie Medical's J-Plasma technology for the reduction of facial wrinkles and rhytides.
The author conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent septoplasty for nasal obstruction secondary to a septal deviation to determine if the location of the deviation had any association with the degree of postoperative pain.
VolitionRx is evaluating the effectiveness of the NuQ assays as a cancer diagnostic tool in several studies, including a 4,800-patient retrospective study and an 11,000-patient prospective study in colorectal cancer in Denmark, a prospective study in Germany involving 2,000 patients with the 20 most prevalent cancers, and a 250-patient study in colorectal cancer in Belgium.

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