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It regulates systemic vascular resistance and circulatory volume by water and electrolyte balance.7 Renin is synthesised from precursor prorenin by the juxtaglomerular apparatus cells.
Prorenin, renin, angiotensinogen, and angiotensin-converting enzyme in normal and failing human hearts.
The processes are mediated by the activation of receptors belonging to the RAAS among which are the family of Ang receptors (ATjR, AT2R, AT4R, and AT7R), the prorenin receptor, the MAS receptor (MASR), and the MET (METR) receptor; the last of which has an activity mediated by the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase receptor (IRAP) [52, 53].
 Other placental hormones include corticotropin-releasing hormone, endorphins, dynorphins, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, inhibin, leptin, prolactin, and prorenin. Parathyroid hormone is increased which leads to increases of calcium uptake in the gut and reabsorption by the kidney.
Angiotensinogen can be rate limiting in the production of Ang II, although the concentrations of renin, prorenin, and the (pro)renin receptor are the primary determinants of the rate of formation of Ang I and Ang II.
Elevated plasma prorenin levels are commonly found in diabetic patients; and, also, it has been demonstrated that prorenin at high concentration binds and activates prorenin/renin receptor [(p)RR] on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro, leading to increased expression of PAI-1 via Angiotensin II-independent and dependent mechanisms, suggesting that elevated prorenin levels in diabetes may contribute to progression of atherothrombotic disease .
Besides these components, there is prorenin receptor (PRR) which binds renin as well as its precursor, prorenin.
Many studies have reported the presence of members of the Rennin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in the ovary, such as prorenin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II receptors (ATI and AT2), suggesting the involvement of the RAS in ovarian physiology (1).
I am very appreciative to our entire R&D team for developing this unique ELISA kit which for the first time allows for both the rapid and quantitative measurement of human prorenin. The kit is quite elegant in its ease of use and because it utilizes a non-isotopic colorimetric design, it can be used with virtually all plate readers in both research and commercial laboratories."
The specific location of renin in granular cells located at the base of the glomerus in the juxtaglomeruler apparatus of the kidney allows for precise monitoring and rapid response to changes in renal arteriola blood pressure and fluid flow within the nephron.3 Prorenin is synthesized and stored in vesicles until cellular signaling results in release of bioactive renin into plasma.
Ishida, "Receptor-associated prorenin system in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases," Frontiers in Bioscience, vol.
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