As an adverse opinion, it has been stated that proprioceptive deficits
are independent from motor deficits (8).
(#) Larger difference in degrees indicates greater difference between right and left leg and thus greater proprioceptive deficit
. Abbreviations: H&Y: Hoehn and Yahr stadium; DD: disease duration; FOGQ tot: total score of the freezing of gait questionnaire; MMSE: mini mental state examination; UPDRS: unified Parkinson's disease rating scale; NA: not applicable; * significant difference (K-W: P< 0.05) between 3 groups (group effect); ** significant difference (M-WU: P < 0.05) between freezers and nonfreezers (post hoc effects).
Given that the sensory receptors believed to mediate ankle proprioception may be located not only in the ligamentous tissues, but also in the tendons, muscles and capsule of the ankle joint and that in addition to nerve conduction problems that may arise, all these structures may be vulnerable to damage as a result of an ankle sprain injury, the likelihood of detecting a proprioceptive deficit
in the individual with an ankle inversion injury history could conceivably be quite high.
Reliable and valid testing for proprioceptive deficits
should include comprehensive balance testing.
Weakness of this study would include insufficient statistical power to detect the differences between the positions of plantarflexion 30[degrees]/inversion 20[degrees] and plantarflexion 30[degrees]/inversion 0[degrees], which may highlight the role inversion on the proprioceptive deficit
Additionally, the bird was extremely weak with bilateral proprioceptive deficits
, nystagmus, and absent pupillary light reflexes in the left eye.
Different methods have been proposed for the quantitative evaluation of proprioceptive deficits
Oliveira, "Proprioceptive deficits
in Parkinson's disease: from clinical data to animal experimentation," Psychology & Neuroscience, vol.
It has been reported that AS patients had proprioceptive deficits
when compared to healthy subjects.
(12-14) Importantly, a systematic review reported proprioceptive deficits
in individuals with benign joint hyper-mobility syndrome.
These aspects, when added to muscular weakness or proprioceptive deficits
, could result in disequilibrium, leading to lesions and damage.