proopiomelanocortin


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pro·o·pi·o·mel·a·no·cor·tin (POMC),

(prō-ō'pē-ō-mel'ă-nō-kōr'tin), [MIM*176830]
A large molecule found in the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and other parts of the brain as well as in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and placenta; the precursor of ACTH, CLIP, β-LPH, γ-MSH, β-endorphin, and met-enkephalin.

POMC

A gene on chromosome 2p23 that encodes proopiomelanocortin, the melanocortin family of hormones, which include alpha-, beta- and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The melanocortins bind to the melanocortin receptors, a group of five G protein-coupled receptors (MC1R to MC5R) which are involved in a wide range of physiological functions, including pigmentation, energy homeostasis, inflammation, immunomodulation, steroidogenesis and temperature control.

Molecular pathology
Defects of POMC are associated with susceptibility to obesity and proopiomelanocortin deficiency.

pro·o·pi·o·mel·a·no·cor·tin

(POMC) (prō-ō'pē-ō-mel'ă-nō-kōr'tin)
A large molecule found in the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and other parts of the brain as well as in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and placenta.

proopiomelanocortin (POMC)

The prohormone from which ACTH, beta-lipotropin, and beta-ENDORPHIN are produced by cleavage. POMC is found most abundantly in the pituitary and hypothalamus, but also occurs in the sex glands and elsewhere.
References in periodicals archive ?
The neuropeptides concerned with feeding behavior are involved in this complex controlling system, of which the anorexigenic neuropeptide like proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neuropeptide like Neuropeptide Y (NPY) play important roles in the regulation of food intake and energy balance (Bazhan and Zelena, 2013).
Neuropeptide Y-mediated inhibition of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus shows enhanced desensitization in ob/ob mice.
In the normal pituitary, ACTH is made byproteolytic processing of the precursor molecule proopiomelanocortin. When processing is faulty, as occurs in some cases of ectopic production of ACTH by tumors, a big form of ACTH is formed.
(73,75,77,89-91) Proopiomelanocortin antigens are commonly detected in melanomas, showing more intense and diffuse immunocytochemical stain in VGP.
Thus, its deficiency leads to insufficient activation of several hormones including proinsulin, proopiomelanocortin, pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone, pro-glucagon, and pro-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1,2).
At variance with the idea of a possible relationship between LCN-2 upregulation and the anorexigenic effects induced by the overactivity of the melanocortin 4 receptor(MC4R-) pathway [97, 98], pioglitazone treatment failed to stimulate an increase of body weight in ALS patients and in SOD1 mice [102], a lack of effect described by the hypothesis of defective melanocortin system and downregulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in ALS.
The anorexigenic response is mediated by proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, and the orexigenic response is mediated by agouti-related protein (AgRP) expressing neurons [35].
In the next section, we will describe evidence of the involvement of peptides derived from prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and the ghrelin and leptin hormones as potential central modulators of microglia-dependent inflammation in a context of positive energy balance.
Leptin, an anorexogenic adipokine, stimulates the production of proopiomelanocortin products, which bind to MC4R, resulting in decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure (86).
Human small cell lung cancer cell lines expressing the proopiomelanocortin gene have aberrant glucocorticoid receptor function.
Fear prompts the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which in turn stimulates the release of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a large molecule that is broken up into several parts including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is responsible for the familiar "fight or flight" response, and beta-endorphin, which may have the survival advantage of numbing pain if the organism is attacked.