pronephros


Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to pronephros: mesonephros, metanephros

pronephros

 [pro-nef´ros] (Gr.)
the primordial kidney; an excretory structure or its rudiments developing in the embryo before the mesonephros; its duct is later used by the mesonephros, which arises caudal to it.

pro·neph·ros

, pl.

pro·neph·roi

(prō-nef'ros, -roy),
1. The definitive excretory organ of primitive fishes. Synonym(s): head kidney
2. In the embryos of higher vertebrates, a vestigial structure consisting of a series of tortuous tubules emptying into the cloaca by way of the primary nephric duct; in the human embryo, the pronephros is a very rudimentary and temporary structure, followed by the mesonephros and still later by the metanephros.
[pro- + G. nephros, kidney]

pronephros

(prō-nĕf′rəs, -rŏs′)
n. pl. proneph·roi (-roi) or proneph·ra (-rə)
A kidneylike organ, being either part of the most anterior pair of three pairs of organs in a vertebrate embryo, disappearing early in the embryonic development of most vertebrates.

pro·neph′ric (-rĭk) adj.

pro·neph·ros

, pl. pronephroi (prō-nef'rŏs, -roy)
1. The definitive excretory organ of primitive fishes.
2. In the embryos of higher vertebrates, a vestigial structure consisting of a series of tortuous tubules emptying into the cloaca by way of the primordial nephric duct; in the human embryo, the pronephros is a very rudimentary, nonfunctional, and temporary structure, followed by the mesonephros and still later by the metanephros.
[pro- + G. nephros, kidney]

pronephros

the first excretory organ in the vertebrate embryo. Its duct (MULLERIAN DUCT) gives rise to the OVIDUCT in the female and degenerates in the male.
References in periodicals archive ?
The pronephros is complete at stage I and the mesonephric kidney develops rapidly and takes over the increasingly important excretory functions.
Bufo arenarum larvae of stage VIII have paired kidneys which are located retroperitoneally and consist of two cranial pronephros, situated behind the gill region, and caudally placed two elongated mesonephros.
The 125-[micro]M dose caused eGFP fluorescence in the developing olfactory organ, gill, skin, liver, and pronephros. Weak expression was occasionally observed in the digestive tube, but the signal was obscured by interference with other fluorescence in the optical path.
The tissues expressing hsp70 and hsp70-eGFP in our experiments did so in a dose-dependent manner, with the order of sensitivity being gill > skin > olfactory organ > digestive tract > liver > pronephros (Table 1).
Signals from trunk paraxial mesoderm induce pronephros formation in chick intermediate mesoderm.
Expression of the LIM class homeobox gene Xlim-1 in pronephros and CNS cell lineages of Xenopus embryos is affected by retinoic acid and exogastrulation.
vhnf1, the MODY5 and familial GCKD-associated gene, regulates regional specification of the zebrafish gut, pronephros, and hindbrain.
Mesonephric remnants may give rise to tumors occurring in the retroperitoneum, gonads, and the inguinal region, whereas the remains of the pronephros may account for those tumors occurring more cranially (mediastinum and the chest wall).