proliferative sickle retinopathy
proliferative sickle retinopathyAn ophthalmopathy which is the most severe ocular change in sickle cell disease, and linked to local hypoxia due to sludging of sickled cells within vessels. It is characterised by microaneurysms, tortuous retinal veins, haemorrhage, exudates, neovascularisation and, if extreme, retinal detachment.
▪ Stage I—Peripheral arteriolar occlusion, usually between equator and ora serrata.
▪ Stage II—Peripheral arteriolar-venular anastomoses, usually in temporal quadrant.
▪ Stage III—Neovascularisation, fibrous proliferatrion, vascular leakage, giving rise to seafan and sunburst pattern.
▪ Stage IV—Vitreous haemorrhage, commonly arising from neovascularisation.
▪ Stage V—Retinal detachment.