proliferative retinopathy


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retinopathy

 [ret″ĭ-nop´ah-the]
any noninflammatory disease of the retina.
central serous retinopathy a usually self-limiting condition marked by acute localized detachment of the neural retina or retinal pigment epithelium in the region of the macula, with hypermetropia.
circinate retinopathy a condition marked by a circle of white spots enclosing the macular area, leading to complete foveal blindness.
diabetic retinopathy retinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus, including microaneurysms and punctate exudates. There are two major forms of diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative and proliferative. The nonproliferative form is characterized by dilation of the retinal veins and microaneurysms which may leak blood cells and/or plasma, causing internal hemorrhaging or edema in the retina. Edema in peripheral areas of the retina goes unnoticed by the patient and may go untreated, whereas edema occurring in the central retina (macula) causes noticeably decreased vision and is the primary cause of vision loss in nonproliferative disease. (See Atlas 4, Part D.) Treatment by local laser photocoagulation is aimed at sealing shut the breaks in the blood vessels and preventing additional leakage of fluid into the area. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in this disease to enhance a final visual outcome of stabilization and prevention of further loss of vision.



In proliferative diabetic retinopathy new blood vessels form near the optic disk, break through the inner membranous lining, and grow on the vitreous chamber and elsewhere in the retina and may rupture, causing gross vitreous hemorrhage. Additionally, fibrous tissue is generated secondary to the new blood vessel formation, and both the fibrous tissue and the new blood vessels become firmly attached to the posterior vitreous face. As the vitreous humor moves, the blood vessels and fibrous tissue cause tractional pulling on the retina and may result in separation or detachment of areas of retina. Panretinal laser photocoagulation is the definitive therapy. The study of early treatment for diabetic retinopathy proved the efficacy of this procedure in causing regression of the new blood vessels and prevention of vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachments, the two major causes of vision loss from this form of the disease.
exudative retinopathy a condition marked by masses of white or yellowish exudate in the posterior part of the fundus oculi, with deposits of cholestrin and blood debris from retinal hemorrhage, and leading to destruction of the macula and blindness.
hemorrhagic retinopathy retinopathy marked by profuse hemorrhaging in the retina, occurring in diabetes, occlusion of the central vein, and hypertension.
hypertensive retinopathy that associated with essential hypertension; changes may include irregular narrowing of the retinal arterioles, hemorrhages in the nerve fiber layers and the outer plexiform layer, exudates and cotton-wool patches, arteriosclerotic changes, and, in malignant hypertension, papilledema. (See also Atlas 4, Part C.)
leukemic retinopathy a condition occurring in leukemia, with paleness of the fundus resulting from infiltration of the retina and choroid with leukocytes, and swelling of the disk with blurring of its margin.
retinopathy of prematurity a disease of the developing retinal vasculature of the premature newborn. The incidence correlates with degree of prematurity; that is, the more premature the infant is, the greater the possibility of this condition occurring. The cause is vasoconstriction of retinal capillaries due to the presence of very high concentrations of oxygen in these blood vessels, which produces an overgrowth of retinal blood vessels. The vascular proliferation and exudation of blood and serum detaches the retina and produces scarring and inevitable blindness. To prevent retinopathy of prematurity it is recommended that oxygen be administered to premature newborns in as low a concentration and for as short a time as feasible. Careful monitoring of the newborn and evaluation of oxygen tension level are essential because no totally safe dosage of oxygen that will prevent the retinal changes has been found. Called also retrolental fibroplasia.
proliferative retinopathy the proliferative type of diabetic retinopathy.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

pro·lif·er·a·tive ret·i·nop·a·thy

neovascularization of the retina extending into the vitreous humor.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

pro·lif·er·a·tive re·ti·nop·a·thy

(prŏ-lif'ĕr-ă-tiv ret'i-nop'ă-thē)
Neovascularization of the retina extending into the vitreous humor.
Synonym(s): retinitis proliferans.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

Proliferative retinopathy

Retinopathy with the growth of new blood vessels (neovascularization).
Mentioned in: Retinopathies
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Short communication: PPAR gamma mediates a direct antiangiogenic effect of omega 3-PUFAs in proliferative retinopathy. Circ Res.
Mrs Pitt, did not have any vitreous haemorrhage, and only needed two treatments of PRC to control the proliferative retinopathy. However, the changes near to the macula in her right eye were now causing some macula oedema in that eye.
The recommendation for the management of retinopathy in individual patients and for the Vision 2020 programme strategy for diabetic retinopathy is: (i) baseline fundoscopy at the initial diagnosis of diabetes; (ii) annual fundoscopy screening; (iii) on detection of retinopathy, referral to an ophthalmologist for follow-up; (iv) depending on the severity/grade of retinopathy, 3-6-monthly fundoscopy by the ophthalmologist; (v) panretinal laser treatment for severe non-proliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy; and (vi) either focal or grid laser treatment for maculopathy.
Early detection of diabetic retinopathy and timely intervention with laser photocoagulation can reduce the incidence of severe vision loss by 50%-60% in patients with macular edema and by 90% in patients with proliferative retinopathy (4).
Thirteen patients had background retinopathy, two had proliferative retinopathy treated with laser photocoagulation and one patient had previously undiscovered proliferative retinopathy.
Studies conducted on substance P have revealed that SP has the capability of inhibiting apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by TNF[eth] caused, thereby suppressing or preventing development of proliferative retinopathy. Ask Industry Experts about this Report - https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=AE&rep_id=795 About FactMR FactMR is a fast-growing market research firm that offers the most comprehensive suite of syndicated and customized market research reports.
Injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) as a preoperative adjunct before vitrectomy surgery in the treatment of severe proliferative retinopathy (PDR) Grafes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.
A study on two types of Diabetic retinopathy i.e proliferative and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy stated that inflammatory and angio-genic markers are raised in non-proliferative retinopathy and decreased in proliferative retinopathy signifying that inflammatory and angio-genic markers detect the progression of diabetic vascular disease and may lead to earlier inter-vention to prevent the systemic complications15.
Duration of diabetes is already a well-proved independent causal factor for occurrence of the Diabetic Retinopathy and also fast progression to Proliferative Retinopathy. [8]
Patients in the early stages of proliferative retinopathy, that is to say, stages 1 and 2, do not require treatment as studies have shown that treatment of the ischaemic retina does not appear to prevent the formation of sea fans, and many patients do not develop sea fans or its complications.

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