proliferative retinopathy


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retinopathy

 [ret″ĭ-nop´ah-the]
any noninflammatory disease of the retina.
central serous retinopathy a usually self-limiting condition marked by acute localized detachment of the neural retina or retinal pigment epithelium in the region of the macula, with hypermetropia.
circinate retinopathy a condition marked by a circle of white spots enclosing the macular area, leading to complete foveal blindness.
diabetic retinopathy retinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus, including microaneurysms and punctate exudates. There are two major forms of diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative and proliferative. The nonproliferative form is characterized by dilation of the retinal veins and microaneurysms which may leak blood cells and/or plasma, causing internal hemorrhaging or edema in the retina. Edema in peripheral areas of the retina goes unnoticed by the patient and may go untreated, whereas edema occurring in the central retina (macula) causes noticeably decreased vision and is the primary cause of vision loss in nonproliferative disease. (See Atlas 4, Part D.) Treatment by local laser photocoagulation is aimed at sealing shut the breaks in the blood vessels and preventing additional leakage of fluid into the area. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in this disease to enhance a final visual outcome of stabilization and prevention of further loss of vision.



In proliferative diabetic retinopathy new blood vessels form near the optic disk, break through the inner membranous lining, and grow on the vitreous chamber and elsewhere in the retina and may rupture, causing gross vitreous hemorrhage. Additionally, fibrous tissue is generated secondary to the new blood vessel formation, and both the fibrous tissue and the new blood vessels become firmly attached to the posterior vitreous face. As the vitreous humor moves, the blood vessels and fibrous tissue cause tractional pulling on the retina and may result in separation or detachment of areas of retina. Panretinal laser photocoagulation is the definitive therapy. The study of early treatment for diabetic retinopathy proved the efficacy of this procedure in causing regression of the new blood vessels and prevention of vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachments, the two major causes of vision loss from this form of the disease.
exudative retinopathy a condition marked by masses of white or yellowish exudate in the posterior part of the fundus oculi, with deposits of cholestrin and blood debris from retinal hemorrhage, and leading to destruction of the macula and blindness.
hemorrhagic retinopathy retinopathy marked by profuse hemorrhaging in the retina, occurring in diabetes, occlusion of the central vein, and hypertension.
hypertensive retinopathy that associated with essential hypertension; changes may include irregular narrowing of the retinal arterioles, hemorrhages in the nerve fiber layers and the outer plexiform layer, exudates and cotton-wool patches, arteriosclerotic changes, and, in malignant hypertension, papilledema. (See also Atlas 4, Part C.)
leukemic retinopathy a condition occurring in leukemia, with paleness of the fundus resulting from infiltration of the retina and choroid with leukocytes, and swelling of the disk with blurring of its margin.
retinopathy of prematurity a disease of the developing retinal vasculature of the premature newborn. The incidence correlates with degree of prematurity; that is, the more premature the infant is, the greater the possibility of this condition occurring. The cause is vasoconstriction of retinal capillaries due to the presence of very high concentrations of oxygen in these blood vessels, which produces an overgrowth of retinal blood vessels. The vascular proliferation and exudation of blood and serum detaches the retina and produces scarring and inevitable blindness. To prevent retinopathy of prematurity it is recommended that oxygen be administered to premature newborns in as low a concentration and for as short a time as feasible. Careful monitoring of the newborn and evaluation of oxygen tension level are essential because no totally safe dosage of oxygen that will prevent the retinal changes has been found. Called also retrolental fibroplasia.
proliferative retinopathy the proliferative type of diabetic retinopathy.

pro·lif·er·a·tive ret·i·nop·a·thy

neovascularization of the retina extending into the vitreous humor.

pro·lif·er·a·tive re·ti·nop·a·thy

(prŏ-lif'ĕr-ă-tiv ret'i-nop'ă-thē)
Neovascularization of the retina extending into the vitreous humor.
Synonym(s): retinitis proliferans.

Proliferative retinopathy

Retinopathy with the growth of new blood vessels (neovascularization).
Mentioned in: Retinopathies

proliferative retinopathy

capillary non-perfusion, retinal neoangiogenesis, venous irregularity, cluster haemorrhages and cotton wool spots (retinal scarring), causing sudden blindness due to vitreous haemorrhages, fibrosis and retinal detachment; characteristic of diabetic eye disease
References in periodicals archive ?
The treatment of choice for Proliferative Retinopathy is PRC or scatter laser, in order to shrink the abnormal blood vessels.
02% of proliferative retinopathy in a health district of 1 million people, there would be 500 new cases requiring laser treatment each year.
The rhodopsin mRNA concentration in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy (group D), however, was not different from the concentration in healthy individuals.
Patients without proliferative retinopathy at onset experienced the most dramatic slowing of deterioration; photocoagulation was more useful in maintaining than in improving vision.
Early detection of diabetic retinopathy and timely intervention with laser photocoagulation can reduce the incidence of severe vision loss by 50%-60% in patients with macular edema and by 90% in patients with proliferative retinopathy (4).
Thirteen patients had background retinopathy, two had proliferative retinopathy treated with laser photocoagulation and one patient had previously undiscovered proliferative retinopathy.
Additionally, although laser photocoagulation therapy will remain the dominant treatment for proliferative retinopathy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors will experience increasing use in diabetic retinopathy patients who also have diabetic macular edema.
Extracapsular cataract surgery with lens implantation in diabetics with or without proliferative retinopathy.
Out of these, 6 were males and 3 were females; 5 patients were found to have background retinopathy, 3 patients had preproliferative and one patient had proliferative retinopathy.
Cruickshanks and colleagues8 investigated the relationship between microalbuminuria and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy in a large population-based cohort of individuals with diabetes they concluded that microalbuminuria is associated cross-sectionally with the presence of retinopathy in persons with diabetes and microalbuminuria may be a marker for the risk of proliferative retinopathy developing.

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