As opposed to prokaryotic cells
in which pigment molecules are attached to peripheral membranes of the cell, the chloroplast represents highly organized arrangements of the chlorophyll, and the other pigment molecules are arranged in specific double membrane layers called thylakoids.
By comparing the difference in sequences of homologous genes encoding ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA genes from prokaryotic cells
and 18S rRNA from eukaryotic cells) we can measure the evolutionary distance between species of organisms.
, which are represented by the eubacteria and archaea, contain precious little internal compartmentalization and have transcriptionally coupled translation, whereas eukaryotic cells, which compose plants, fungi, algae, animals, and a widely diverse group of unicellular protists, are equipped with a large cadre of intracellular compartments that are functionally specialized for specific intracellular tasks.
"For instance, the precise 3-D localization of proteins within prokaryotic cells
is key to many cellular functions, including cell cycle, DNA replication, development, motility, and adhesion.
The evolution of the origin of T-DNA in the bacterial plasmids is unknown, but it is of considerable interest because the T-DNA encodes genes that are expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
. The hormone involved, IAA, is produced from indole-3 -acetamide, and both IAA and cytokinins can be produced by agrobacteria in rich media containing tryptophan or tyrosine.
Yet mechanical force can affect both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
. At this workshop, Gillespie described how a mechanically sensitive hair bundle serves the hair cell in mechano-electrical transduction.
Identification and functional characterization of Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L.) small heat shock protein 16.9 gene (EsHsp16.9) conferring diverse stress tolerance in prokaryotic cells
There are a few studies on induction of the SOS response in prokaryotic cells
exposed to low-level lasers (10,15,16,18).