proinsulin


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Related to proinsulin: proinsulin C-peptide

proinsulin

 [pro-in´soo͡-lin]
a precursor of insulin, having low biologic activity.

pro·in·su·lin

(prō-in'sŭ-lin),
A single-chain precursor of insulin.

proinsulin

(prō-ĭn′sə-lĭn)
n.
A single-chain polypeptide that is the precursor of insulin, converted into insulin by enzymatic action.

INS

A gene on chromosome 11p15.5 that encodes preproinsulin, which is cleaved post-translationally into the B- and A-chain peptides (which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin) and C-peptide. Insulin reduces blood glucose and increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids, and accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle and glycogen synthesis in the liver.

pro·in·su·lin

(prō-in'sŭ-lin)
A single-chain precursor of insulin.
References in periodicals archive ?
The ratio of proinsulin to immunoreactive insulin (PI/IRI) was also calculated as a marker of [beta]-cell function.
Diabetes mellitus was not defined as a part of PC1/3 deficiency although it can be speculated that there must be a relative insulin deficiency due to the defect in conversion of proinsulin to insulin.
Similarly to PDX-1, the discrepancy between conserved mRNA expression and decreased proinsulin content suggests the involvement of a posttranslational mechanism.
During the 2010 American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions, the utility of measuring proinsulin-derived gene I and gene II isoforms in a single ELISA kit was demonstrated for each of mouse insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin (ALPCO Diagnostics, Salem, NH).
Crucially, the misfolded mutant proteins cause normal proinsulin proteins in beta cells to misfold as well, the scientists found in studies of mouse and rat beta cells.
To exclude unspecific interference of peptides with DnaK-RCMLA interaction, we analysed the effect of the peptide B18-30 encompassing 13 amino acids of the C-terminal region of the proinsulin B-chain, partially overlapping with the sequence of peptide B11-23 (Table 1).
In this present study, using glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, we evaluated the association of glycemic control with ghrelin and proinsulin concentrations in umbilical cord blood and maternal peripheral blood.
In comparison, incubation of iDCs with proinsulin partially suppressed DC activation, while incubation of iDCs with CTB-INS fusion protein suppressed iDC biosynthesis of both CD86 and CD83 costimulatory factors.
The next STELLUX[TM] products to be released in the coming months will include assays for Intact Proinsulin, C-peptide and GLP-1.
In addition, the requirement that proinsulin not be recognized by the immunoassays is also fulfilled by the selectivity of the SRM-based quantification method (19).
In healthy volunteers, the insulinogenic index (0.65 [+ or -] 0.29 to 1.23 [+ or -] 0.56, P = 0.02) and the ratio of proinsulin to insulin were significantly improved (3.4 [+ or -] 1.8 to 2.1 [+ or -] 0.6, P = 0.03).
More recently, GLP-1 was shown to upregulate proinsulin gene transcription and insulin production also in pancreatic beta-cells not exposed to glucose, but stimulated with other mediators of injury [3-7].