In chemico evaluation of prohapten skin sensitizers: Behavior of 2-methoxy-4-(13C)methylphenol in the peroxidase peptide reactivity assay (PPRA) as an alternative to animal testing.
1996); (2) the prohaptens eugenol, cinnamic alcohol, geraniol and resorcinol, which are commonly recommended for in vitro assays (Rovida et al.
Separately focusing on the impact of HaCaT keratinocytes on the modulation of EC[DELTA]10 and EC[DELTA]50 values for haptens or prohaptens revealed that the chemicals for which potency was decreased were mainly haptens, while the majority of the chemicals for which potency was increased are prohaptens (acetaminophen, 3-aminophenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, resorcinol, cinnamic alcohol) (Fig.
So far, results obtained using the available methods show limitations in the demonstration of concentration-dependency and have limited capacities to detect certain prohaptens and for potency prediction (Piroird et al.
However, our observed correlation with in vivo data on sensitization potency did not solely derive from enhanced potency for CD86 and/or CD54 upregulation of certain prohaptens but is equally based on the decreased potency of 4 of 6 haptens in our coculture model.
A skinlike cytochrome P450 cocktail activates prohaptens to contact allergenic metabolites.
Discrimination of haptens from prohaptens using the metabolically deficient Cpr(low/low) mouse.