Instead of renewing the medication, the physician could have offered the patient a hormone medication from another drug class: 1) progestin
only, 2) GnRH analogue, or 3) danazol.
Contraceptive vaginal ring: The vaginal ring (NuvaRing, Merck) has efficacy and side effects that are similar to those of the COCs, since it releases a combination of estrogen and progestin
. Inserted and left in place for 3 weeks, it is then removed for 1 week to induce withdrawal bleeding.
Estrogen with or without progestin
decreased LDL and total cholesterol concentrations; increased HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations; increased CRP and MMP-9 concentrations; decreased E-selectin concentrations; had no effect on IL-6 concentrations; increased plasmin-antiplasmin complex concentrations; decreased fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 antigen, homocysteine, glucose, and insulin concentrations; and had no effect on D-dimer, factor VIII, prothrombin fragment 1.2, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and von Willebrand factor concentrations.
If you miss periods and can't take either combination or progestin-only birth control pills, or would simply prefer not to take them, you may need an occasional progestin
prescription to balance the unopposed estrogen.
They found that breast cancer incidence was higher in estrogen plus progestin
users than incidence in nonusers.
Associations were significant for women who had taken pills with high doses of both hormones (0.6), low doses of both (0.2), or a low dose of estrogen combined with a high dose of progestin
(0.5); differences among pill formulations were not statistically significant.
In a study published in 2006 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), five or more years of estrogen plus progestin
use significantly increased the risk of ovarian cancer for women who had not had a hysterectomy.
are also used alone for birth control, and for treatment of a variety of other conditions, including abnormal uterine bleeding and amenorrhea (absence of periods); endometriosis; breast, kidney or uterine cancer; and loss of appetite and weight related to AIDS and cancer.
After the estrogen plus progestin
arm of the WHI was halted in 2002, WHIMS data published a year later showed an increased risk of dementia and no protection against MCI associated with estrogen plus progestin
(JAMA 289:2651-62, 2003).
The Women's Health Initiative Study compared women who used estrogen and progestin
to women who only used estrogen.
Here's the reality behind the WHI: Basically, in 2002 the WHI found that women taking the hormone therapy Prempro, composed of progestin
(a synthetic progestogen known as medroxyprogesterone acetate or MPA) and conjugated equine estrogen, had a 26 percent increased risk of invasive breast cancer, a 29 percent increased risk of heart attack, a 41 percent higher rate of stroke and more than a 100 percent increase in blood clots in the lung.
In the study in Australia,55 men received hormone treatment over the course of a year containing a combination of the male hormone testosterone and progestin
in an attempt to ``switch off'' sperm production.