All adult females were found to be reproductively active throughout the year, either in pregnancy (51%), lactating (20%), or reproductive (29%, in the estrus or proestrus
phases of the reproductive cycle).
05) between both protocols in regards to days of recuperation for the following clinical variables: days until the next proestrus
(138 days), days until a normal echography (15 days), days until absence of vomiting (6.
smear primarily consisted of a predominance of nucleated epithelial cells; an estrus smear primarily consisted of anucleated cornified cells; a metestrus smear consisted of the same proportion among leukocytes, cornified, and nucleated epithelial cells; and a diestrus smear primarily consisted of a predominance of leukocytes (MARCONDES et al.
05) in the diestrus phase and a decrease in the proestrus
(p < 0.
After detecting the proestrus
phase, the female rats were distributed in pairs, in polyethylene cages, with appropriate bedding, in the presence of a male rat at the end of the afternoon.
One group was in the proestrus
phase and the second one in the estrus phase.
The 17[beta]-estradiol concentrations of one female, proestrus
Right before estrus, there is a short state called proestrus
This reduction in the CFU/ml is due to the removal of the irritating agent, also promoted by the increase in local immune response caused by the estrogenic phase during proestrus
The cycles were regarded as normal when they showed typical stages of proestrus
, estrus, met-estrus and di-estrus stages, which normally lasts for 4-6 days.
The first postpartum luteal phase can be of short duration (< 12 days), which is usually associated with lack of previous exposure to progesterone (27) or adequate estradiol during proestrus
Kisspeptin neurons in the periventricular nucleus were actived by estrogens during the proestrus
in the rat (Smith et al.