For proper diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics, thorough knowledge of both skeletal and dental components in all 3 dimensions: sagittal, vertical and transverse, is essential.1 Among several parameters that are considered during orthodontic treatment planning, maxillary incisor inclination is of prime importance due to its profound effect on smile esthetics.2,3 Maxillary and mandibular incisors position and inclination influence the upper and lower lip positions.4-6 Mandibular incisor inclination is also important because their excessive proclination
may result in gingival recession, bony dehiscence7-9 and/or post-treatment relapse.2,3
Correlation between mandibular central incisor proclination
and gingival recession during fixed appliance therapy.
Mandibular anterior tooth movement was similar to protrusion and proclination
in both groups.
[13,16] Previous studies showed that gingival recessions damage to the root surface and the alveolar bone might occur with the proclination
or retroclination of the mandibular incisors also.
Key Words: Bi-maxillary proclination
, Orthodontic treatment, Lower Facial Height, Premolar ex- traction, soft tissue profile.
Lips were incompetent due to proclination
of upper front teeth.
Aim of the study was to investigate the change in lower anterior facial height (LAFH) following 1st premolar extraction and incisor retraction in bimaxillary proclination
What it also revealed was the extreme labial proclination
and the very thin labial plate with pronounced dehiscence (Fig 3 and 4).
To date, only the R-appliance has been reported to move the mandible forward without any proclination
of the lower anteriors (3,6).
Prior to the advent of interproximal reduction the interarch space was created by extraction, expansion proclination
of the teeth or surgery.1
* Minimal loss of anterior anchorage (as evidenced by axial proclination
of the incisors)
Turkkahraman and Sayin14 conducted a study in 2003 and analyzed whether incisor proclination
, over-jet and overbite, cranial base dimensions, maxillary and mandibular relationships, face heights and growth direction of mandible had a significant etiologic relationship with lower incisor crowding.