Inactive xenobiotics that are converted to carcinogens in the organism.
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Not only ethanol but many other substrates are also metabolized by CYP2E1, including neurotoxins or procarcinogens, producing reactive intermediates [97, 98].
Phytochemicals, particularly the thiol class such as sulforaphane, have also been shown to inhibit the conversion of procarcinogens to their electrophilic, DNA damaging, chemicals (32,33).
Bioflavonoids and environmental procarcinogens have similar molecular structures and can often act as ligands for the same aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR).
CYP1A2 plays an important role in the metabolism of several clinically used drugs, including theophylline, clozapine and tacrine, and foodborne procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or imidazoquinoline derivatives (Faber et al.
Reduce the carcinogenic effect of aflatoxin through use of chemopreventive agents such as Oltipraz, green tea polyphenols, and Sulforaphane, which trigger detoxifying enzymes or inhibit enzymes required for the activation of procarcinogens.
55) COX2 activates procarcinogens, promotes angiogenesis, and indirectly increases free radical production.
Microbial glucuronidase activity also has been shown to be important in activating food-borne procarcinogens in the gut (Humblot et al.
Being exposed to different poisons in the diet like toxins, mutagens and procarcinogens, the intestinal mucus is very susceptible to pathologies," explained Maria Angeles Martin Arribas, lead author of the study and researcher at ICTAN.
CYP1B1 functions to catalyze the metabolism of certain procarcinogens and 17[beta]-estradiol, which contribute to the growth and development of estrogen-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer (47).
Sabrina Peterson, assistant professor of foods and health at the University of Minnesota and authority on phytochemical induction of CYP1A2 and its implications for carcinogenesis, delivered a lucid overview of the biotransformation of various ingested procarcinogens to carcinogens and how this could alter somatic DNA leading to cancer.