In the present study, primiparity
and cephalic presentation of the fetus were independent risk factors for SFWE failure, with RRs of 1.6 and 2.8, respectively.
We conclude that various high-risk factors such as primiparity
, abnormally greater or less duration of labor, shoulder dystocia, Mc Roberts maneuver, and epidural anesthesia are associated with the phenomenon of PSD.
Profile of mothers and children participating in the study, Marilia, 2015 N = 46 N % Child gender Female 29 63.0 Male 17 37.0 Low birth weight (< 2500g) Yes 4 8.7 No 42 91.3 Birth at Baby-Friendly Hospital Yes 10 21.7 No 36 78.3 Breastfeeding within first hour of life Yes 32 71.1 No 13 28.9 Pacifier use No 17 37.0 Yes 29 63.0 Age upon enrollment in the childcare center < 5.0 months 17 37.0 5.1-6.0 months 10 21.7 > 6 months 19 41.3 Maternal age < 35 years 22 47.8 > 35 years 24 52.2 Maternal education Secondary education 16 24.8 Higher education 30 65.2 Primiparity
Yes 28 60.9 No 18 38.1 Health professional Yes 34 73.9 No 12 26.1 Breastfeeding breaks Yes 5 10.8 No 41 89.2 Table 2.
The other covariates that were related to seasonality of conception (p < 0.05) were relationship status, maternal age, primiparity
, education, and region (see Table S2).
Factors associated with increased risk of breech delivery in Flanders (Northern Belgium) are low gestational age and low birth weight, increasing maternal age, primiparity
, history of caesarean section, female gender, and presence of congenital malformation .
Additionally, a recent retrospective medical review reported that multiple gestations as well as primiparity
are potential risks for SPD .
(2) This study aims at determining the effect of virtual reality on pain in primiparity
women during episiotomy repair.
Certain conditions are mentioned in literature as risk factors for several spontaneous perineal lacerations, such as instrumental delivery (forceps application or vacuum extraction), primiparity
, lithotomy position, perineal tissue stiffness, bad adaptation of fetal presentation in the symphysis pubis, anomalous fetal position, fetal macrosomia and rapid fetal delivery .
, premature contractions, PROM in a previous pregnancy, and bleeding in the first trimester34 are considered risk factors for PROM.
Her risk factors for this condition were primiparity
and obesity (body mass index of 30 kg/[m.sup.2] at booking).
Dohanich:, "The effects of pregnancy, lactation, and primiparity
on object-in-place memory of female rats," Hormones and Behavior, vol.
 Factors associated with unexplained stillbirths are high pre-pregnancy maternal weight, fewer than four antenatal clinic visits, primiparity
, parity of three or more, low socioeconomic status, and maternal age of 40 years or more.