The FES system for the prototype HNP consists of 16 channels of stimulation delivered via chronically indwelling intramuscular electrodes to activate (1) quadriceps muscles for knee extension, (2) hamstring muscles for hip extension, (3) gluteus maximus muscles for hip extension, (4) gluteus medius muscles for hip abduction, (5) iliopsoas muscles for hip flexion, (6) erector spinae muscles for trunk extension, (7) pretibial
muscles for ankle dorsiflexion, and (8) calf muscles for bilateral ankle plantar flexion.
PG most commonly affects the lower legs with preference for the pretibial
region, followed by trunk, head and neck and hands involvement.
Benzer lezyonlar karin, kol ekstansor yuzleri, pretibial
bolge ve ayak sirtinda da daginik sekilde yer almaktaydi.
The thyroid disease described by Robert Graves (7) and now known as Graves disease is part of a syndrome that consists of hyperthyroidism, goiter, ophthalmopathy and, occasionally, dermopathy referred to as pretibial
or localized myxedema.
Consider a patient with a scaly dermatosis on the pretibial
Hyperthyroidism causes pretibial
myxedema (thickened waxy plaques occurring in up to 10% of patients and almost always with accompanying ophthalmopathy), palmar erythema, soft thickened skin, increased sweating of the hands and feet, and thyroid acropachy (clubbing of fingers or toes) in Grave's disease.
Edema was defined as bilateral, pitting, pretibial
swelling that was at least 1+.
It typically presents with enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter), signs and symptoms of excessive thyroid function, ophthalmopathy (which is severe in 3% to 5% of cases), and less frequently pretibial
myxedema and acropachy.
Wounds at risk consist of avulsed skin flaps, wounds located over the pretibial
surface and Achilles tendon; and flaps that are contused, ecchymotic, or blanched.
Erythema Tender erythematous dermal and subcutaneous nodosum * (11) nodules present on the pretibial
region of the lower extremities.
Abdominal ascites and pretibial
edema were present.
At the physical examination, the following findings were determined: pale skin, irregular and tachycardia heart rhythm, jugular venous distension and pretibial