A] receptors directly or indirectly but also may act presynaptically
to increase GABA release in numerous brain regions (Ariwodola and Weiner 2004; Nie et al.
The 7 botulinum toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum are neurotoxins that act presynaptically
to prevent the release of acetylcholine.
Company scientists have shown that certain aminoglycoside antibiotics presynaptically
block calcium channels found on nerve cells in the brain.
1A] receptors are localized both postsynaptically and presynaptically
(Kia et al.
The glutamatergic transmission can be altered, both presynaptically
, in the amount of glutamate released from the axon terminal, and postsynaptically, in the trafficking and expression of various glutamate receptors.
Tetrabenazine is a centrally acting drug that reversibly inhibits vesicular monoamine transporter-2, depletes monoamines presynaptically
, and depletes dopamine preferentially over norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, according to Prestwick Pharmaceuticals.
Venlafaxine is an antidepressant acting presynaptically
to inhibit reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and--to a lesser extent--dopamine.
Epigallocatechin gallate, the most active polyphenols catechin in green tea, presynaptically
My own clinical impression is that [alpha]-2 agonists like clonidine [Catapres] and guanfacine [Tenex], which reduce the release of epinephrine presynaptically
, are very effective against arousal and dissociative symptoms," Dr.
The drug is thought to work on the NMDA system presynaptically
by modulating glutaminergic transmission and postsynaptically as an antagonist of the NMDA receptor.