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pressure pointsPlaces where major arteries lie near the surface and over bones. Direct pressure applied to these points can limit the blood flow and control severe bleeding as a first aid measure in cases of injury.
stress or strain, by compression, expansion, pull, thrust or shear.
the blood pressure in the arteries.
the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, about 15 lb per square inch (2.17 kPa) at sea level.
the blood pressure in the capillaries.
central venous pressure (CVP)
see central venous pressure.
the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, normally 100 to 150 mmHg.
the lowest pressure recorded in the arterial blood pressure cycle. Represents the minimal pressure in the left ventricle which can maintain its ejection phase. See also blood pressure.
a device attached to the outlet of gas tanks to measure internal pressure which indicates the quantity of gas remaining.
the rate of increase (or decrease) in the magnitude of the pressure being measured.
intracranial pressure (ICP)
see intracranial pressure.
intraocular pressure (IOP)
the pressure exerted against the outer coats by the contents of the eyeball.
mean circulatory filling pressure
a measure of the average (arterial and venous) pressure necessary to cause filling of the circulation with blood; it varies with blood volume and is directly proportional to the rate of venous return and thus to cardiac output.
thought to participate in regulating the volume of extracellular fluid levels when the normal neurohumoral mediators are impaired; the increase in water and sodium ion excretions which occur when blood pressure is elevated because of an increase in the circulating blood volume.
necrosis of tissue caused by exclusion of circulation by external compression, e.g. in prolonged recumbency, or due to too-tight bandage, collar, harness.
pressure less than that of the atmosphere.
the osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution.
the potential pressure of a solution directly related to its solute osmolar concentration; it is the maximum pressure developed by osmosis in a solution separated from another by a semipermeable membrane, i.e. the pressure that will just prevent osmosis between two such solutions.
pressure point granuloma
see pressure points (below).
pressure point pyoderma
see pressure points (below).
parts of the body subject to pressure when the animal is recumbent, wearing harness or saddlery, or during restraint. Usually bony prominences such as the point of the hock, hip, shoulder, elbow and lateral aspects of limbs. These are predisposed to callus formation, infection pyoderma and granulomas.
pressure greater than that of the atmosphere.
difference between systolic and diastolic pressures in arteries.
e.g. the blood pressure receptors in the aortic arch and the carotid sinus.
the highest reading in the arterial blood pressure cycle. A reflection of the ejection pressure of left ventricular systole, and the elasticity of the arterial system.
the blood pressure in the veins. See also central venous pressure.
intravascular pressure as measured by a swan-ganz catheter introduced into the pulmonary artery; it permits indirect measurement of the mean left atrial pressure.
bandages which apply pressure to underlying tissues; used after trauma to limit the development of edema, and in the management of lymphedema.