The apelin gene encodes a secreted preprotein
of 77 amino acids with a prodomain, a signal peptide, and a C-terminal peptide.
Briefly, in rodents, the BDNF gene consists of nine 5' untranslated exons, each linked to individual promoter regions, and a 3' coding exon (IX), which codes for the BDNF preprotein
amino acid sequence .
After translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum, the preprotein
is cleaved of and pro-apoA-I is secreted into blood and lymph.
Hill et al., "Tom22 is a multifunctional organizer of the mitochondrial preprotein
translocase," Nature, vol.
Primary antibodies used (a) mouse monoclonal anti-RyR1/RyR3 34C (1:20) (Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, University of Iowa, Iowa, USA) and (b) rabbit polyclonal antimitochondrial preprotein
translocases of the outer membrane, TOM20 (1:50) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA).
This investigation unearthed seven essential human nonhomologous metabolic proteins, of which three were membranous proteins including preprotein
translocase subunit SecD (T1, gene reference 218562707), cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (T2, gene reference 218563091) and preprotein
translocase subunit SecE (T3, gene reference 218562127).
The "RNA World" hypothesis describes a preprotein
world where RNA was able to both carry genetic information (later evolved into DNA) and act as biocatalysts (most of them replaced by proteins).
Taskin et al., "Amyloid-[beta]-peptide induces mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibition of preprotein
maturation," Cell Metabolism, vol.
In addition, peptides [J0I929_HELPX.sub.1-11] (MIIGGGVSGCA) derived from HP quinone oxidoreductase J0I929_HELPX protein (UniProtKB accession number J0I929) and [T2T4W3_HELPX.sub.99-105] (AGIVLTV) derived from HP preprotein
translocase subunit T2T4W3_HELPX (UniProtKB accession number T2T4W3), respective homologs of [ZnT8.sub.178-186] and [ZnT8.sub.186-194], were synthesized by the same manufacturer at >90% purity.
Eleven SNPs were shared only by Papworth and Seattle cystic fibrosis outbreak strains (n = 9), including nonsynonymous mutations in the preprotein
translocase secA1 and a putative lyase (Figure 2; online Technical Appendix).
Indeed, through screening of the human protein database, we found several secretory proteins that have similar T(or S)-X(n)-RXXR [down arrow] sequences, including endothelin 1 pre-prohormone (40TPSPPWRLRRSIR 2 C) and von Willebrand factor preprotein
(768SHRSKR [down arrow] S).
The six additional Nematostella loci that exhibit significant similarity to the "fibronectin type II" domain are best matches to human notch 2 preprotein
, relaxin, vitrin, neuronal pentaxin, neuropilin, and semaphorin.