The tracheostomy tube was attached to ventilator for preoxygenation
before anesthesia induction.
carried out by administration of 100% [O.sub.2] with face mask for 3 min, orotracheal intubation was performed when adequate muscle relaxation was observed, and the patient was ventilated with Drager (Lubeck, Germany) anesthesia device to provide a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg and frequency of 12/min.
, 1 mcg/kg of fentanyl and 3.5 mg/kg of propofol doses were administered intravenous.
Patient baseline vitals (HR, SBP, DBP, MAP, EtC[O.sub.2], Sp[O.sub.2]) were recorded during preoxygenation
, during fiberscope insertion, ETT placement and then every minute for the next five minutes.
for 3 minutes, induction was given with injection propofol 2 mg/kg.
In addition, preoxygenation
employing the bag mask valve prior to intubation was applied to all patients, and the level of arterial oxygen saturation was real-timely monitored.
This involved notifying the patient, ensuring that special equipment and a reasonably experienced laryngoscopist were present in the room, checking for the absence of resistive patient muscle tone and finally, placing the patient in an optimal sniffing position and providing preoxygenation
before induction to anaesthesia (23).
Fentanyl 50 [micro]g, lidocaine (1 mg/kg), thiopental (4 mg/ kg), and rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) were used in Group 1 after monitorization and 2-3 min of preoxygenation
. In Group 2, fentanyl 50 [micro]g, lidocaine 1 mg/kg, and 75% of thiopental dose (4 mg/kg) were used.
In order to avoid these shortcomings, yeast can be oxygenated (= preoxygenation
) before its use in fermentation.
After 3 minutes of preoxygenation
, an initial intravenous bolus of propofol (2 to 3mg/kg) was injected to induce anesthesia.
* lack of adherence to standard operating procedures for airway management during induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation or incompletion of preparatory tasks (e.g., preoxygenation
, neck stabilization, inadequate intravenous access for the planned surgical procedure).