* Age: >40 years <60 years; body mass index (BMI) >18.5 <30 kg/[m.sup.2] (normal and preobese
ob mice with leptin deficiency displayed thermogenic defects and similar milk intake, compared with control mice, at around 2 weeks of age, the preobese
phase [15, 18].
According to BMI criteria, 29.2% were underweight, 45.8% were normoweight, and 25% were preobese
. Primary diseases affecting the patients included tumor of the head of pancreas (54.2%), periampullary tumor (41.6%), and cholangiocarcinoma (4.2%).
For analysis, preobese
+ obese were included in one unique group referred to as "overweight."
In our study, we enrolled normal weight, preobese
, and obese up to the second-degree patients based on BMI, and, at the same time, we performed DXA to evaluate body composition.
(v) WHO International BMI classification: BMI < 18.5 was classified as "underweight"; <16.00, "severe thinness"; 16.00-16.99, "moderate thinness"; 17.00-18.49, "mild thinness"; 18.50-24.99, "normal range"; BMI [greater than or equal to] 25.00, "overweight"; 25.0-29.99, "preobese
"; [greater than or equal to]30.00, "obese"; 30.00-34.99, "obese class I"; 35.00-39.99, "obese class II"; and >40.00, "obese class III."
Respondents were classified into three categories: obese (BMI [greater than or equal to] 30), preobese
(25 [less than or equal to] BMI < 30), and those with BMI < 25 (reference group).
The mechanisms by which preobese
stage and obesity lead to the development of musculoskeletal symptoms are increasing work demands and damage to blood vessels which reduces the ability to regenerate cartilage and consequent further damage .
Overweight and obesity were defined based on the WHO criteria (overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m [sup]2; preobese
: 25 kg/m [sup]2≤BMI <30 kg/m [sup]2; obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m [sup]2).[sup] Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis were defined as a history, medical diagnosis made by a physician, or regular use of corresponding medication.
According to Ministry of Health, in 2011 about 33.3% from 5.4 million Malaysian adults are included in preobese
, whereas 27.2% are under obese category.
The Mid Expiratory Flow Rates were 338.80 [+ or -] 16.86, 326.84 [+ or -] 24.90 and 326.32 [+ or -] 18.46 L/min in normal BMI, Preobese
and Class I obese respectively.
The average BMI of the patients was 27.79 [+ or -] 5.15 (kg/m[sup.2]) which is why they are in average considered as preobese