Co-researcher Christophe Guilmoto said that for too long, the focus was on prenatal sex selection
At the same time, as ideal family size declines, son-targeting behavior (through both differential stopping and prenatal sex selection
) becomes more necessary (a phenomenon known as intensification) for couples who want sons, because the chances of having two sons falls if a couple is willing to have only a limited number of children.
In fact, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) attempted to address the sex selection issue by avoiding an open discussion of abortion, instead referring only to prenatal sex selection
. (55) In its Guidance Note on Prenatal Sex Selection
, UNFPA warned its agents "not [to] identify sex selection itself as a human rights abuse." (56)
Prenatal Sex Selection
and Missing Girls in China: Evidence from the Diffusion of Diagnostic Ultrasound.
In order to ban the abuse of techniques for determining the gender of fetuses, the United Nations labelled prenatal sex selection
as a form of discrimination in 1994 (United Nations Population Fund, n.d.).
(8), (9) And the ICPD Programme of Action urges governments to "eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child and the root causes of son preference, which results in harmful and unethical practices regarding female infanticide and prenatal sex selection
" (8)--a recommendation also echoed in the Beijing Declaration.
Coupled with this strict family policy and strong son preferences, prenatal sex selection
reached epidemic levels in the late 1980s, as many women opted for abortions upon discovering that the fetus was female.
The potential impact of attitudes about the preferred gender of one's child has increased in recent years because various techniques for prenatal sex selection
have become more widely available -- including ways of detecting the gender of a fetus early in the gestation process, and the increasing technological ability to select the sex of a child using in vitro and artificial insemination procedures.
Both the traditional fertility culture and prenatal sex selection
had contributed to the problem, Wang Guangzhou, a researcher on the project, was quoted as saying by the state-run Global Times.
(3.) Daniel Goodkind, "Should Prenatal Sex Selection
In the early days of prenatal sex selection
, only two options were available to determine the sex of a fetus: amniocentesis and CVS.
Increasingly technological "progress" collaborates in gender-based violence through prenatal sex selection
that favors male offspring, while a related problem of female infanticide and abuse persists.