premenstrual


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premenstrual

 [pre-men´stroo-al]
preceding menstruation.
premenstrual dysphoric disorder premenstrual syndrome viewed as a psychiatric disorder.
premenstrual syndrome (PMS) the presence of symptoms in the period before menstruation or in the early days of the menstrual period; also called premenstrual tension. Definition and diagnosis depend on the timing and the cyclic nature of symptoms rather than on specific clinical manifestations, which can vary greatly from one patient to another but follow a consistent pattern in the individual from cycle to cycle.

Various psychological and emotional causes of this syndrome have been proposed; only recently has serious attention been paid to it as a physical as well as a psychological phenomenon. Research has shown that onset and increased severity of symptoms often occur when rapid hormonal changes are taking place, e.g., at puberty, after a pregnancy, or when oral contraceptives are discontinued. A transient increase in water retention seems to account for edema, weight gain, bloating, and breast changes. Other etiologic factors may be an estrogen-progesterone imbalance, hypoglycemia, vitamin deficiencies, prostaglandins, and psychogenic disturbances.
Symptoms. Symptoms may begin at the time of ovulation and increase until the menses, or they may appear at ovulation, abate, and then reappear and increase until menses. In some cases they arise only a few days before the onset of menstruation. In true PMS the symptoms cease with the onset of menses or last no more than a few days into the cycle.

Premenstrual syndrome can affect virtually every system of the body and produce behavioral changes that have significant psychosocial impact. Physical symptoms may include headache, vertigo, or paresthesias; common colds, rhinitis, asthma, sinusitis, or sore throat; abdominal bloating, nausea, or food cravings; breast tenderness and engorgement; backache, joint pain, and edema; and others. Psychological or emotional symptoms may include irritability, tiredness with sleep disturbance, mood swings, depression, and altered libido.
Treatment. Successful management of the syndrome is difficult and protocols vary greatly, probably because there is no clear understanding of the causes. Therapies include progesterone therapy, administration of vitamin B6 daily, and curtailment of intake of sodium, methylxanthines (coffee, tea, and chocolate), and nicotine. Additionally, the patient may be advised to restrict the intake of refined sugar, alcohol, and animal fats. Increasing the intake of vegetable oils may be recommended in order to enhance prostaglandin formation.
Patient Care. A major goal of intervention is the promotion of self-care strategies. For example, the patient is encouraged to keep a menstrual calendar to validate cyclic changes and to give her a sense of purposeful management of her life. She may then plan to avoid stressful events during the time symptoms are present. Counseling can help identify sources of stress and effective mechanisms to deal with stressful situations. Sufficient sleep and rest are needed because fatigue tends to exaggerate the symptoms. Moderate exercise can increase the patient's sense of well-being. A nutritious diet is also helpful, especially the inclusion of foods that are natural sources of the B vitamins and magnesium. The intake of sodium, caffeine, and refined sugar should be limited and alcohol and tobacco avoided.

Severe premenstrual symptoms can seriously disrupt vital human relationships, leading to domestic problems including child abuse and other acts of violence. Health care providers will need to be aware of the psychosocial ramifications of premenstrual syndrome and to facilitate positive coping behaviors, make referrals to agencies prepared to deal with these kinds of problems, and provide support and counseling when indicated.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl),
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.

premenstrual

/pre·men·stru·al/ (pre-men´stroo-al) occurring before menstruation.

premenstrual

(prē-mĕn′stro͞o-əl)
adj.
Of, relating to, or occurring in the period just before menstruation.

pre·men′stru·al·ly adv.

premenstrual

[-men′stro̅o̅·əl]
Etymology: L, prae, before, menstrualis, monthly
before the start of menstruation each month.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl)
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl)
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.
References in periodicals archive ?
The symptoms may include headache, breast tenderness, pelvic pain, premenstrual tension, irritability, dysphoria and mood lability1,4,5.
The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Premenstrual Syndrome and enlists all their major and minor projects
Concentrations of sex hormones are drastically altered during the premenstrual stage.
T test is used in order to determine the mean difference of the premenstrual syndrome based on the marital status that the degree of the sig level is 0.
While there are some investigators suggesting that PMS symptoms start after menarche particularly in the 30s but some studies demonstrated that premenstrual complaints have an onset mostly between the adolescence and the 20s.
A premenstrual symptom chart or checklist (also called a menstrual cycle diary) is the most common method used to evaluate menstrual cycle symptoms.
Mood changes correlate to changes in brain serotonin precursor trapping in women with premenstrual dysphoria.
Wyatt KM, Dormick PW, Jones PW, O'Brien PMS Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: Systematic review.
However, in recent years ginkgo biloba has been linked to reducing premenstrual syndrome symptoms.
Statistically significant association was found between knowledge regarding prevention of premenstrual syndrome and presence of premenstrual syndrome, as p-value 0.
One study suggested that suboptimal production of premenstrual ALLO may lead to increased arousal and increased stress reactivity to psychosocial or environmental triggers.