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Abbreviation for progressive-resistance exercise.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


(ek'ser-siz?) [L. exercitus, trained, drilled]
A physical or mental activity performed to maintain, restore, or increase normal capacity. Physical exercise involves activities that maintain or increase muscle tone and strength, esp. to improve physical fitness or to manage a handicap or disability. See: table; physical fitness; risk factor; sedentary lifestyle

Daily physical activity for a minimum of 35 min will increase exercise capacity and the ability to use oxygen to derive energy for work, decrease myocardial oxygen demands for the same level of work, favorably alter lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, prevent cardiovascular disease, and help to control body weight and body composition. An exercise program should include developing joint flexibility and muscle strength, esp. in the trunk and limbs. This is of particular importance as people age. Exercise can have a beneficial effect in patients with depression or anxiety. It is thought to have a positive effect on balance, endurance, attitude, and outlook.

An exercise program should be neither begun nor continued if the individual or the person prescribing the exercise program has evidence that the activity is painful or harmful. Persons have died while exercising, and heavy physical exertion may precede acute myocardial infarction, particularly in people who are habitually sedentary. See: exercise prescription

Mental exercise involves activities that maintain or increase cognitive faculties. Daily intellectual stimulation improves concentration, integration, and application of concepts and principles; enhances problem-solving abilities; promotes self-esteem; facilitates self-actualization; counteracts depression associated with social isolation and boredom; and enhances the quality of one's life. This is particularly important during aging. See: reminiscence therapy

Most of the negative aspects of aging can be either altered or diminished by a lifelong healthy lifestyle. For example, the loss of physical fitness and strength, an inevitable consequence of aging, can be altered by an individualized fitness and strength program. Progressive loss of bone mass due to osteoporosis may be either prevented or slowed by a program of regular exercise. Loss of cardiac fitness can be forestalled by an ongoing aerobic fitness program. Many cases of type 2 diabetes can be controlled by exercise and an appropriate diet. Arthritic stiffness and loss of flexibility can be influenced favorably by exercise, e.g., by walking and jogging; for patients who experience joint pain with impact exercise, swimming is an alternative. Obesity and loss of muscle mass can be prevented or minimized.

Exercise stimulates release of endorphins, and people who participate in regular exercise programs express positive feelings toward living. Exercise programs can be adapted for patients who are confined to wheelchairs. An important consideration for any exercise program is that it be enjoyable. No matter how beneficial the program may be, if it is not enjoyable or rewarding, it will not be continued.

active exercise

A type of bodily movement performed by voluntary contraction and relaxation of muscles.

aerobic exercise

Exercise during which oxygen is metabolized to produce energy. Aerobic exercise is required for sustained periods of physical exertion and vigorous athletic activity.
See: anaerobic exercise

anaerobic exercise

High-intensity exercise, such as sprinting or weight lifting, that places more demand on muscles than oxygen delivery can match. When this occurs, glucose is metabolized for its stored energy without using oxygen as a reactant. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced rapidly, as well as the byproduct, lactic acid.
See: aerobic exercise.

aquatic exercise

The use of a pool or an immersion tank filled with water for exercise. Such exercises may be used to improve balance and gait, enhance physical endurance, mobilize joints, and/or strengthen or stretch muscles.
See: hydrotherapy

assistive exercise

A type of bodily movement performed by voluntary muscle contractions that are augmented by an extrinsic force such as a clinician or mechanical device.

Bates exercise

See: Bates exercises

breathing exercise

Exercise that enhances the respiratory system by improving ventilation, strengthening respiratory muscles, and increasing endurance. It is used in pulmonary rehabilitation

Buerger postural exercise

See: Buerger, Leo

Codman exercise

See: Codman exercise

concentric exercise

A form of isotonic exercise in which the muscle fibers shorten as tension develops.
See: concentric muscle contraction; eccentric muscle contraction

corrective exercise

Use of specific exercises to correct deficiencies caused by trauma, inactivity, muscular imbalances, poor flexibility, or biomechanical inadequacies.

dynamic stabilization exercise

Stabilization exercise.

eccentric exercise

An exercise in which there is overall lengthening of the muscle in response to an external resistance.
See: concentric muscle contraction; eccentric muscle contraction

flexibility exercise

An activity, e.g., stretching, designed to increase joint range of motion and extensibility of muscle.

free exercise

An exercise carried through with no external assistance.

isokinetic exercise

An exercise with equipment that uses variable resistance to maintain a constant velocity of joint motion during muscle contraction, so that the force generated by the muscle is maximal through the full range of motion.
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ISOMETRIC EXERCISE: Isometric exercise of the upper extremities

isometric exercise

Contraction and relaxation of a skeletal muscle or group of muscles in which the force generated by the muscle is equal to the resistance. There is no change in muscle length, and no movement results. See: illustration Synonym: muscle-setting exercise; static exercise

isotonic exercise

An active muscle contraction in which the force exerted remains constant and muscle length changes.

Kegel exercise

See: Kegel exercise

kinetic chain exercise

An exercise that requires the foot (or hand) to apply pressure against a plate, pedal, or ground. This rehabilitation concept was determined by the anatomical functional relationship in the lower extremities. It also applies to the upper extremities. Kinetic chain describes how forces occur during human motion and how segments of the body are linked together. Kinetic chain exercises can either be open or closed. Open kinetic chain exercises are unrestricted movements in space of a peripheral segment of the body. Closed kinetic chain exercises are movements in which the distal segment meets with external resistance and remains fixed. Closed kinetic chain exercises are more functionally based than open chain exercises.

Kinetic chain exercises can either be open or closed. Kinetic chain describes how forces occur during human motion and how segments of the body are linked together. Open kinetic chain applies to unrestricted movement in space of a peripheral segment of the body. In closed kinetic chain exercises, the distal segment meets with external resistance, and remains fixed.

muscle-setting exercise

Isometric exercise.

neurobic exercise

Brainteasers, association tasks, calculations, puzzles, and other mental and physical exercises designed to stimulate thinking, problem solving, and other cerebral functions.

passive exercise

Passive motion.

pelvic floor exercise

Kegel exercise.

pendulum exercise

Codman exercise.

progressive resistive exercise

Abbreviation: PRE
A form of active resistive exercise based on a principle of gradual increase in the amount of resistance in order to achieve maximum strength.
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range-of-motion exercise

Movement of a joint through its available range of motion. It can be used to prevent loss of motion.
See: illustration

regressive resistive exercise

Abbreviation: RRE
A form of active resistive exercise that advocates gradual reduction in the amount of resistance as muscles fatigue.

relaxation exercise

An exercise (such as yoga, tai chi, dance, prayer, or meditation) that induces a relaxation response.

resistance exercise

Exercise in which a muscle contraction is opposed by force to increase strength or endurance. If the resistance is applied by using weights, it is mechanical resistance; if applied by a clinician, it is manual resistance.
Synonym: resistive exercise

resistive exercise

Resistance exercise.

stabilization exercise

The application of fluctuating resistance loads while the patient stabilizes the part being trained in a symptom-free position. Exercises begin easily so that control is maintained, and progress in duration, intensity, speed, and variety.
Synonym: dynamic stabilization exercise

static exercise

Isometric exercise.

stretching exercise

A therapeutic exercise maneuver, using physiological principles, designed to increase joint range of motion or extensibility of pathologically shortened connective tissue structures.

therapeutic exercise

The use of physical activity or training as a means of improving flexibility, health, strength, or well being; fostering recovery from injury or surgery; preventing complications of injury or illness; or improving or maintaining functional performance. Therapeutic exercise interventions may include techniques to improve motion, strength, motor control, muscle and cardiopulmonary endurance, and efficiency, posture, balance, and coordination.
* These estimates are approximate and can serve only as a general guide. They are based on an average person who weighs 160 lb (72.58 kg). † Energy requirements for swimming are not provided because of variables such as water temperature, whether the water is fresh or salt, buoyancy of the individual, and whether the water is calm or not.
Calories Required per Hour of ExerciseActivity†
80Sitting quietly, reading
200Golf with use of powered cart
250Walking 3 miles/hr (4.83 km/hr); housework; light industry; cycling 6 miles/hr (9.7 km/hr)
330Heavy housework; walking 3.5 miles/hr (5.6 km/hr); golf, carrying own bag; tennis, doubles; ballet exercises
400Walking 5 miles/hr (8 km/hr); cycling 10 miles/hr (16.1 km/hr); tennis, singles; water skiing
500Manual labor; gardening; shoveling
660Running 5.5 miles/hr (8.9 km/hr); cycling 13 miles/hr (20.9 km/hr); climbing stairs; heavy manual labor
1020Running 8 miles/hr (12.9 km/hr); climbing stairs with 30-lb (13.61-kg) load

progressive resistive exercise

Abbreviation: PRE
A form of active resistive exercise based on a principle of gradual increase in the amount of resistance in order to achieve maximum strength.
See also: exercise
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

Patient discussion about PRE

Q. preventing pre menstrual MIGRAINES. Has anyone come up with any good preventive medicine for migraines? Mine come systematically right before and during the menstrual cycle. My (male) neurolight in Paris didn't seem to see a linkk with migraines and my cycle - or offer any preventive advice. I take Relpax to relieve. Does anyone have a more natural or preventive solution?

A. I have the same problem and take Topomax to prevent the migrains. Also make sure you get enough rest right before you start. There seems to be a correlation. It took about 2 months to fully work but at least the first migrain after I started taking Topomax wasn't as severe.

Q. why isn't she backing to her pre-pregnant weight"? Have you ever thought why people are thinking "Mary, her baby is 3 months old, why isn't she backing to her pre-pregnant weight"?

A. going back to pre-pregnancy weight is taking some times, and one simple way to get your weight back to before-pregnancy-weight is by taking care of your baby yourself.
I have a lot of female friends who are baby-sitting their babies themselves, and I observe that they tend to have their normal weight back quicker than those who are "lazy-enough-not-to-take-care-their-babies.

Breastfeeding can be one factor to help you go back to pre-pregnancy weight. If those two suggestion aren't working, then you can start adjust your diet (be careful if you're breastfeeding your baby), and start exercising.

Q. What risk is it in a pre-delivery? let say couple of weeks before the due . and what is the earliest one can deliver with out harming the baby ?

A. I think just couple of weeks premature is not a major problems because the baby lungs is considered fully develop at 32 weeks and the survival rate is much greater than babies born before 24 weeks. Don't worry because the last part of the pregnancy is just weight gain of the fetus.

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