In one study, after transdermal application, plasma progesterone and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide
(progesterone metabolite) excretion showed small increases, red cell progesterone never exceeded plasma levels, and salivary levels were very high and variable compared to placebo.
Researchers used urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide
to detect ovulation, and did periodic endometrial biopsies.
The primary estradiol metabolites estrone sulfate and estrone glucuronide [estrone conjugates (EIC)] and the progesterone metabolite pregnanediol-3-glucuronide
(PdG) were measured daily by enzyme-linked immunoassays and then adjusted for creatinine concentration, as described previously (Munro et al.
The concentrations of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide, LH and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide
as indices of ovarian function.
The researchers calculated the percentage of days in each menstrual cycle that included ETS exposure, then analyzed the independent association between ETS exposure and profiles of pregnanediol-3-glucuronide
(PdG) and [E.
Validations of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays for urinary estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide