preganglionic


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preganglionic

 [pre″gang-gle-on´ik]
proximal to a ganglion.

pre·gan·gli·on·ic

(prē'gang-glē-on'ik),
Situated proximal to or preceding a ganglion; referring specifically to the preganglionic motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system (located in the spinal cord and brainstem) and the preganglionic, myelinated nerve fibers by which they are connected to the autonomic ganglia.

preganglionic

(prē-găng′glē-ŏn′ĭk)
adj.
Of, relating to, or being the nerve fibers that supply a ganglion, especially a ganglion of the autonomic nervous system.

pre·gan·gli·on·ic

(prē'gang-glē-on'ik)
Situated proximal to or preceding a ganglion; referring specifically to the preganglionic motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system (located in the spinal cord and brainstem) and the preganglionic, myelinated nerve fibers by which they are connected to the autonomic ganglia.

preganglionic

Pertaining to the nerves of the spinal cord that connect to the chains of ganglia of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM lying alongside the spine.
References in periodicals archive ?
It then gives branches over the preauricular and temporal areas.[46] The parasympathetic chain to parotid consists of the preganglionic fibers that originate in the inferior salivatory nucleus and travels with the glossopharyngeal nerve, tympanic nerve, and lesser petrosal nerve to the otic ganglion.
Scopolamine butylbromide is a synthetic, peripheral cholinergic receptor blocker that ameliorates the hyperreactivity of cholinergic receptors in the preganglionic sympathetic neurons and reduces the overcontraction of visceral smooth muscles.[sup][11],[12],[13] In contrast, an M-cholinergic receptor blocker, anisodamine, can inhibit peripheral cholinergic activities but its therapeutic dose has no significant inhibitory effect on excessive smooth muscle spasm.
In a stressful situation, a brain region called the amygdala sends out a stress signal to the hypothalamus, which induces the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from preganglionic sympathetic nerves.
In addition, it is also known to promote the synthesis of endogenous motilin, and subsequently stimulate cholinergic nerves of the gut at both preganglionic and postganglionic levels, which leads to the release of calcium and contraction of smooth muscle cells (2).
Second-order or preganglionic (proximal to the superior cervical ganglion) Horner's syndrome is usually seen with neck trauma, thoracic outlet lesions, thyroid malignancies, or a Pancoast tumor.
As ERG and mfERG originate from preganglionic elements [12], these electrophysiological tests do not enable the functional evaluation of the innermost retinal layers, particularly the macular region.
Dysfunction at any level of ANS (central, preganglionic or postganglionic or at effector organ), results in generalized dysautonomia.
The last nucleus houses the presynaptic (preganglionic) parasympathetic motor neurons of the oculomotor nerve which innervate the sphincter pupillae iridial muscles [7, 22].
Contrarily to PD, MSA has been described as isolated disorder of the central nerve system with accumulation of phosphorylated [alpha]-synuclein limited to brain tissue and preganglionic neurons [13].
Murakami, "Evaluation of novel dry eye model: preganglionic parasympathetic denervation in rabbit," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.
Chen et al., "Beta-asarone inhibits synaptic inputs to airway preganglionic parasympathetic motoneurons," Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, vol.
Thus, low frequency stimulation applied in preganglionic neurons is likely to have the same effects as the high frequency applied to the postganglionic neurons.