Anterior to the heart.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
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Several neurohormones have been identified in decapod precardiac organs, which are ideally located to release their products in hemolymph on its bypass to the heart (Alexandrowicz, 1953), which include serotonin, dopamine, and octopamine (Beltz & Kravitz, 1983); this last one relaxes the anterior cardio-arterial muscle and causes contraction of the posterior valve in lobster, and it changes hemolymph distribution toward the anterior arterial system in crabs (Airries & McMahon, 1994).
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treated with BIX01294 showed an induced expression of Mesp1 and brachyury [13, 14], which are markers associated with precardiac progenitors in the early embryo [15-17].
When these iPSC helper molecules were tested for their ability to broaden the potential of bone marrow stem cells, the only one that appreciably upregulated precardiac markers and allowed the cells to respond to cardiogenic signals was the G9a HMTase inhibitor BIX01294.
The above results indicated that TSA synergistically enhanced the induced expression by BIX01294 of key transcription factors characteristic of embryonic precardiac progenitors (Figures 1 and 2).
Our previous investigations have demonstrated that the G9a HMTase inhibitor BIX01294 will cause these cells to exhibit the early mesodermal, precardiac markers Mesp1 and brachyury, without any corresponding enhancement of either endodermal, ectodermal, or pluripotency markers [13].
In that regard, experiments using MOCPAC or BATCP--which are preferential inhibitors of class I or II HDACs, respectively [59]--generated results similar to TSA in enhancing BIX01294 stimulation of precardiac gene expression (not shown).
Shenje et al.; "Precardiac deletion of Numb and Numblike reveals renewal of cardiac progenitors"; eLife, 2014; DOI: 10.7554/eLife.02164
"Endodermal growth factors promote endocardial precursor cell formation from precardiac mesoderm," Dev.
BMP signaling coordinates gene expression and cell migration during precardiac mesoderm development.
Evaluating the use of a videotape in teaching the precardiac catheterization patient.
By growing precardiac embryonic stem cells on HA-hydrogels with elastic moduli ranging from 1 to 10 kPa, a 60% increase in myofibril orientation and a 3-fold increase in Troponin T expression was observed compared to cells grown on mechanically static polyacrylamide hydrogels [192].