pulmonary hypertension and sleep-disordered breathing: is there a link?
These features of multicompartment involvement, which often signal the presence of an underlying, systemic, autoimmune process, include unexplained intrinsic airways disease (including airflow obstruction, bronchiolitis, or bronchiectasis), unexplained pulmonary vasculopathy (such as precapillary
pulmonary hypertension), and unexplained pleural or pericardial effusion or thickening resulting from inflammation of the serosal surfaces.
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) refers to paroxysmal pallor or cyanosis, mainly of the digits of the hands or feet owing to cold-induced vasoconstriction of the digital arteries, precapillary
arterioles, and cutaneous arteriovenous shunts [1,2].
CTEPH and PAH are both classified as precapillary
pulmonary hypertension (PH) and have similar histopathological characteristics.
2,5,6) The disease tends to affect precapillary
arterioles, and encephalopathy is usually the first clinical sign.
Detectableserum cardiactroponin Tas a marker of poor prognosis among patients with chronic precapillary
It has a post-capillary component (passive PAH) and a precapillary
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is defined as a mean resting precapillary
pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg or >30 mm Hg with activity.
N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as an indicator of disease severity in a heterogeneous group of patients with chronic precapillary
High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide as independent predictors of the occurrence of precapillary
pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with systemic sclerosis.
Sleep apnea in precapillary
As the vasoconstriction takes place with the decreases in vasodilatation, wall to lumen ratio of precapillary
arterioles increases (41).