to create four pre-embryos
, two of which were used to produce twins.
First, the court discussed "[w]hether the legislature's declarations [that life begins at conception/fertilization] constitutionally apply to frozen pre-embryos
and whether frozen pre-embryos
should be considered 'children' under Missouri's [marriage] dissolution statutes." (114) Specifically, the court discussed whether section 1.205 of the Missouri Revised Statutes can be read in pari materia with Missouri's statute for marriage dissolution.
(June 12, 2015), http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/ctembryos-court-ruling-met-20150612-story.html; Madeleine Schwartz, Who Owns Pre-Embryos
?, NEW YORKER (Apr.
(6) Dunston asked her significant other at the time, Jacob Szafranksi (hereinafter "Szafranski"), to provide his sperm to create pre-embryos
with her eggs so that she could have the option to have a child of her own in the future, and Szafranksi agreed.
In contrast, no attempt is made to save all the pre-embryos
that are naturally excreted.
In 1979, Clifford Grobstein, a frog embryologist, coined the word "pre-embryo
." (1) He subsequently admitted that the word was conceived in order to reduce the "status" of the early human embryo, whom he declared to be a "pre-person." (2) He held that since identical twins may occur up to fourteen days after fertilization, only a "genetic individual" is present, not a "developmental individual", and that therefore an embryo, a "person", is not present." (3) This notion of a "pre-embryo
" was also supported in 1979 by the bioethics writings of Jesuit theologian Richard McCormick, in his work with the Ethics Advisory Board to the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
(37.) See Djalleta, supra note 22, at 335 (sperm can be frozen up to ten years, pre-embryos
up to 600 years).
Div., Ph.D., of the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, testified that the mainline Protestant denomination, United Church of Christ, believes pre-embryos
should be granted great respect, but noted that the church is not categorically opposed to stem cell research on embryos.
(Board of Trustees Report) JAMA, May 9, 1990, at 2484,
Nancy Rice, an attorney who has worked with ACT, observed that to date courts in Massachusetts have deemed 3- or 4-day embryos, like those created by company to be "pre-embryos
" that don't share the legal protections given a fetus.
One is the over-familiar "philosophical" definition of person which pompously excludes certain kinds of human life from the class of "beings worthy of respect." The other is a definition according to which early embryos are called pre-embryos
. Just as pre-Christians are not Christians and pre-marital sex isn't sex in marriage, so too a pre-embryo
sounds like a non-embryo.
This has been done with human pre-embryos
following IVF so that the cells could be cultured to discover if the pre-embryos
were at risk for cystic fibrosis.