potassium permanganate


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potassium

 (K) [po-tas´e-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 19, atomic weight 39.102. (See Appendix 6.) In combination with other minerals in the body, potassium forms alkaline salts that are important in body processes and play an essential role in maintenance of the acid-base and water balance in the body. All body cells, especially muscle tissue, require a high content of potassium. A proper balance between sodium, calcium, and potassium in the blood plasma is necessary for proper cardiac function.

Since most foods contain a good supply of potassium, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia) is unlikely to be caused by an unbalanced diet. Possible causes include cushing's syndrome (due to an adrenal gland disorder) and fanconi's syndrome (the result of a congenital kidney defect). The cause could also be an excessive dose of cortisone, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, or thiazide diuretics, which are administered for treatment of hypertension. Signs of potassium deficiency can include weakness and lethargy, rapid pulse, nausea, diarrhea, and tingling sensations.

If the body absorbs enough potassium but the element is not distributed properly, various disorders may develop. Thus an abnormally low content of potassium in the blood may result in an intermittent temporary paralysis of the muscles, known as familial periodic paralysis.

Potassium deficiency can be treated by administration of potassium supplements. There is a large variety of these preparations. Some are liquids, some are powders to be dissolved in liquids, and some are slow-release tablets that dissolve in the intestine. All can cause gastrointestinal irritation. For many persons on diuretic therapy for hypertension, potassium deficiency can be avoided by increasing their consumption of potassium-containing foods, such as bananas, dates, prunes, and raisins, and potassium supplements are not needed. Potassium supplements are never given to patients receiving potassium-sparing diuretics such as amiloride, spironolactone, or triamterene. If the difficulty lies in the body's use of potassium, treatment is concerned with the primary cause of the deficiency.
Homeostatic balance of potassium. Through the functions of resorption and excretion, the kidneys are the best regulator of potassium balance in the extracellular fluids. From Malarkey and McMorrow, 2000.
potassium acetate an electrolyte replenisher and systemic and urinary alkalizer.
potassium bicarbonate an electrolyte replenisher, antacid, and urinary alkalizer.
potassium bitartrate a compound administered rectally as a suppository with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide, which promotes defecation by distending the rectal ampulla; administered for relief of constipation, and evacuation of the colon before surgical or diagnostic procedures or childbirth.
potassium chloride a compound used orally or intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher.
potassium citrate a systemic and urinary alkalizer, electrolyte replenisher, and diuretic.
dibasic potassium phosphate the dipotassium salt, K2HPO4; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds as an electrolyte replenisher.
potassium gluconate an electrolyte replenisher used in the prophylaxis and treatment of hypokalemia.
potassium guaiacolsulfonate an expectorant.
potassium iodide an expectorant, antithyroid agent, and antifungal.
monobasic potassium phosphate the monopotassium salt, KH2PO4; used as a buffering agent in pharmaceutical preparations and, alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, as an electrolyte replenisher and urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
potassium permanganate a topical antiinfective and oxidizing agent, and an antidote for many poisons.
potassium phosphate a compound combining potassium and phosphoric acid, usually dibasic potassium phosphate.
potassium sodium tartrate a compound used as a saline cathartic.

po·tas·si·um per·man·ga·nate

a strong oxidizing agent used in solution as an antiseptic and deodorizing application for malodorous lesions, and formerly as a gastric lavage in poisoning from morphine, strychnine, aconite, and picrotoxin; in electron microscopy, it stains cytomembranes well and gives results similar to lead hydroxide staining; also used as a fixative (Luft).

po·tas·si·um per·man·ga·nate

(pŏ-taśē-ŭm pĕr-mangă-nāt)
Strong oxidizing agent used in solution as an antiseptic and deodorizing application for malodorous lesions; also used as a fixative.

potassium permanganate

A soluble compound that gives a skin-staining, deep purple solution with antiseptic and astringent properties. Now little used.

potassium

a chemical element, atomic number 19, atomic weight 39.102, symbol K. See Table 6. In combination with other minerals, potassium forms alkaline salts that are important in body processes and play an essential role in maintenance of its acid-base and water balance. All body cells, especially muscle tissue, require a high content of potassium. A proper balance between sodium, calcium and potassium in the blood plasma is necessary for proper cardiac function. Alfalfa meal, molasses and soyabean meal are good sources for herbivores.

potassium acetate, bicarbonate, bitartrate, citrate, gluconate
electrolyte replenishers, weak diuretics and urinary alkalinizers. Some are also used as expectorants.
potassium arsenite
potassium bromide
used in the treatment of seizures in humans and dogs.
potassium carbonate
used commercially as a fertilizer.
potassium channel
see channel.
potassium chloride
a compound used orally or intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher.
potassium cyanide
may be present in industrial effluents. A potent cause of cyanide poisoning.
potassium deficiency
nutritional deficiency of potassium is very rare. In calves can cause poor growth, anemia and diarrhea. Experimental deficiency in piglets causes also incoordination and cardiac insufficiency.
potassium exchange resins
an oral preparation administered to limit the amount of potassium available for absorption; used in the management of hyperkalemia. See also ion-exchange resin; sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
potassium guaiacolsulfonate
an expectorant.
potassium hydroxide (syn. potassium hydrate)
used commercially as a caustic. In veterinary medicine used mostly for clearing skin scrapings in the diagnosis of ectoparasite infestation.
potassium iodate
used as a constituent of salt blocks and mixes to supplement the diet with iodine. Overdosing will cause iodism.
potassium iodide
an expectorant and antithyroid agent.
potassium nitrate
used commercially as a fertilizer and a meat preservative. Can cause nitrate poisoning or nitrite poisoning in ruminants.
potassium nitrite
a compound sometimes used in place of potassium nitrate. Overdosing causes methemoglobin formation and severe, sometimes fatal hypoxia.
potassium nutritional deficiency
causes poor growth, anemia and diarrhea in pigs and calves. Electrocardiographic changes are also recorded. See also hypokalemia.
potassium oxalate
causes oxalate poisoning.
potassium permanganate
a topical anti-infective, oxidizing agent, and antidote for many poisons. See also permanganate.
potassium phosphate
a cathartic.
potassium pump
see sodium pump.
potassium sodium tartrate
a compound used as a saline cathartic and also in combination with sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid (Seidlitz powders, a cathartic).
References in periodicals archive ?
The United States, the INCB, and others encourage countries in South America to continue obtaining and sharing information on these new trends; at the same time, developing an effective multilateral effort focused on potassium permanganate has been difficult because of the large number of licit uses for this chemical.
Fifteen parallel tests were performed, with the results indicating that potassium permanganate, iodine, and hydrogen peroxide all exhibited inhibitory effects on antibody activity in the precipitation reactions.
Potassium permanganate binds with proteins to form proteinases and with fat to form soap, which explains the resulting necrotic ulcers that may later lead to perforation.
When assessing the efficiency of degradation of oil products in different samples, it was determined that diesel fuel was degraded the fastest in samples with potassium permanganate, where efficiency of degradation was 94%, and 90% in samples with [H.
The spectral changes during the oxidation of the aldehydic acids by potassium permanganate in alkaline medium (pH [approximately equal to] 12) was monitored in a thermostated cell compartment within [+ or -] 0.
The process involves sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate, which have been in common use since the 1890s.
Effort Clean out water butts and add potassium permanganate or Biotal Refresh to keep the water clean and smelling sweet.
San Francisco Delta waters were treated with ozone, chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate to reduce subsequent halogenated DBP formation.
Using potassium permanganate soaks from the chemist can also help.
Purple benzene was prepared by using dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 as PTC from solid potassium permanganate by Sam and Simmons (1972).
However, the experiment led to an extension of the original investigation focusing on reactions of potassium permanganate and manganese dioxide when mixed with sodium sulfide.
5 mL of 1% potassium permanganate solution, followed by addition of a few drops of 2N hydrochloric acid, turns a pink permanganate solution colorless with effervescence.