To overcome clinical diagnostic challenges, more emphasis is being given using other -omics approaches to analyze the functional consequences of genomic data at the levels of RNA, protein, epigenomics, posttranslational modifications
, metabolites, and RNA-seq in particular (2), as recommended by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines.
In the mouse hippocampus, long-term memory (LTM) formation is tightly coupled to de novo gene expression of plasticity-related proteins and posttranslational modifications
[43-45] and relies on intact cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein kinase C (PKC)/CREB/ERK signaling [43, 46,47] including chromatin remodeling [48-54].
In turn, protein function is regulated by small molecular change known as posttranslational modifications
, which cannot be detected in the DNA or RNA.
Several mutations may occur in the TSHR gene that influence either the protein component or posttranslational modifications
of the receptor.
Gatto Jr., "Protein posttranslational modifications
: the chemistry of proteome diversifications," Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.
CIITA is 1130 amino acid protein and is dynamically regulated through an intricate series of posttranslational modifications
Numerous regulatory posttranslational modifications
(PTM), such as phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, have been reported and shown to have effects on activating or inhibiting NF-[kappa]B induced by diverse agents.
She also describes the inherent difficulties when applying current high throughput technologies to this task due to the biochemical nature of membrane proteins, causing problems with solubility, correct folding, and posttranslational modifications
. Also, the fast dissociation rates and low affinity for some of these interactions require further modifications not present in the natural proteins.
Histone posttranslational modifications
(PTMs) regulate gene expression chromatin structure.
While there are several different types of epigenetic mechanisms, protein posttranslational modifications
(PTM) are intriguing contributors in regulating aging [22-27].
Recently, emerging evidences demonstrated that hypertrophied heart is accompanied by proliferating of cardiac microtubules and altered the posttranslational modifications
(PTMs) on tubulin, such as detyrosination and acetylation of tubulin .