the increase of MMP-9 level was mostly marked postsynaptically
, within the dendritic spines.
Wang et al., "[mu]-opioid receptors are located postsynaptically
and endomorphin-1 inhibits voltage-gated calcium currents in premotor cardiac parasympathetic neurons in the rat nucleus ambiguus," Neuroscience, vol.
(70)) Climbing fiber inputs induce depolarization and resultant [Ca.sup.2+] elevation in Purkinje cells, whereas parallel fiber stimulation activates mGluR1 concentrated postsynaptically
, which fulfills the requirements of [Ca.sup.2+]-assisted RER.
MHC I proteins are found on the surface of both axons and dendrites and are located in synapses both pre- and postsynaptically
where they are involved in regulating neurite outgrowth .
The researchers believed that the pharmacological action of lavender may be from lavender's action postsynaptically
. Previous research, they reported, indicated that lavender modulates and can decrease the activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which is associated with sedation.
ABT-126 potentiates the action of the alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, which is expressed both pre- and postsynaptically
. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are especially rich in nicotinic receptors, which influence the release of acetylcholine, dopamine, and glutamate.
[[alpha].sub.1]-Adrenergic receptors which exist postsynaptically
are G-protein-coupled receptors, and thus activation of cellular signaling is subsequent to the interaction with a G-protein.
They are mainly located postsynaptically
and modulate glutamate transmission through negative and positive regulation of potassium and calcium ion channels, respectively.
5-[HT.sub.1A] receptors are located both presynaptically (as so-called somatodendritic receptors on the cell bodies of the 5-HT neurons in the diverse raphe nuclei in the brain stem) and postsynaptically
in discrete brain regions, including the cortex, amygdala and the hippocampus (Glaser and De Vry 1992; Hamon 1997).
ATP is stored in and released from synaptic nerve terminals and is known to act postsynaptically
via P2X receptors.
(5) Presynaptically, 5-HTlAare autoreceptors, ie, serotonin stimulation of these receptors results in inhibition of firing of 5-HT neurons, while postsynaptically
they may be involved in downstream serotonergic effects such as sexual function.
Incidentally, this finding is contrary to the popular notion that barbiturates act exclusively at GABA receptors (and, therefore, postsynaptically
: the data of Blaustein and Ector (20) also invalidate that view).