, this phenomenon became evident at 5 min, was statistically significant at 10 min, and persisted for at least 20 min.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone which is released postprandially
. It acts by stimulating both insulin release and insulin gene expression.
Results: The acute study demonstrated that a low dose of LC n-3 PUFA (25% eicosapentaenoic acid and 75% docosahexaenoic acid) significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid levels in plasma of human subjects postprandially
from 0.30% to 0.42% of total non-esterified fatty acids, a per cent change of 39% (P < 0.05).
However, serum OC concentrations and lipids are affected postprandially
and need to be considered in relation to quantity and timing of food consumption (Phillips et al.
The vitamin then forms a complex with intrinsic factor, a specific glycoprotein that is secreted postprandially
by parietal cells in the gastric lining, and moves toward the ileum to attach to receptors on the terminal ileum membrane.
Effects of a moderate dose of alcohol on blood lipids and lipoproteins postprandially
and in the fasting state.
It is typically asymptomatic, rarely occurs during sleep, and often occurs in the upright position postprandially
. Functional GER is defined as silent or asymptomatic reflux and is identified by esophageal pH monitoring (pH-metry).
HDL cholesterol is another well established CHD risk factor,[30-32] and the NCEP Adult Treatment Panel recommends that HDL cholesterol be assayed along with total cholesterol as part of a screening program to assess a patient's risk for CHD. Concentrations [less than] 0.90 mmol/L (3 5 mg/dL) are considered to confer increased risk, and concentrations [greater than] 1.55 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) are generally considered protective. These tests can be performed in the nonfasting state, although HDL cholesterol levels will be slightly lower postprandially
, as discussed earlier. Individuals whose HDL cholesterol concentrations are [less than] 0.90 mmol/L (35 mg/dL) at screening should then have the test repeated in the fasting state for a complete lipoprotein profile.
The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted postprandially
and act as circulating factors enabling the body to respond appropriately to food-derived elevations of blood nutrient concentrations.
(v) target glucose values: RCTs to identify ideal glycemic targets have not been performed, but ADA and ACOG recommend a threshold of 140 mg/dL at 1 hour postprandially
or 120 mg/dL at 2 hours postprandially
as glycemic targets to reduce the risk of macrosomia [5,9];
Attacks frequently occur postprandially
or awaken the patient from sleep.
* Biliary colic is associated with right upper quadrant or epigastric pain that begins postprandially