peruviensis has a small prong present in each of the posterior branches
of the pronotal extension (Fig.
In the present study, we showed that compound 48/80 induced dural mast cell degranulation leads to vasodilation of middle meningeal artery and its anterior and posterior branches
. It is known that middle meningeal artery and middle cerebral artery are dilated during migraine attack, but in the present study, we show histologically for the first time that dural mast cell degranulation causes dilatation of meningeal arteries.
Gross anatomy observation: The trunk of the obturator nerve passes through the obturator externus muscle about 3 cm inferiolaterally to the pubic tubercle and divides into anterior and posterior branches
, both of which travel superficial (anterior branch) and deep (posterior branch) to the adductor brevis muscle.
GAN is the superficial branch of the cervical plexus from the C2 and C3 spinal nerves and is divided into anterior and posterior branches
. The anterior branch runs into the parotid gland, whereas the posterior branch communicates with ABVN and the posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve .
For example, leading devices into bending bile ducts, such as cystic ducts or posterior branches
, is sometimes challenging (Figure 1).
Due to the history of hematuria, CT urography was done and it showed extensive calcification of the corpus cavernosa, penile vessels, and soft tissues (Figure 2), obstructive calcified of bilateral internal iliac vessels both anterior and posterior branches
During its course, the obturator nerve divides into anterior and posterior branches
. In a cadaveric study, bifurcation of these two main branches of the obturator nerve was determined to be intrapelvic (23.22%), within the obturator canal (51.78%), or in the medial thigh (25%) .
The paraspinal approach has many advantages compared with the traditional anterior and posterior approach: it results in less blood loss, shorter surgical duration, maintains the posterior ligamentous complex intact by preventing the stretching and distracting of paraspinal muscles, prevents denervation atrophy of the sacral spinal muscles by avoiding damage to the posterior branches
of the lumbar nerve and dorsal branches of the lumbar artery, provides a broad operative field for the implantation of the pedicle screws, shorter bed rest time, and quicker recovery.
The bifurcation of the axillary nerve into anterior and posterior branches
may occur within the quadrilateral space or within the deltoid muscle.
of the facial suture transverse, curved outwards immediately behind the palpebral lobes.
[1,2] The femoral nerve block is performed on the main stem of the nerve, inferior to the inguinal ligament, before it divides into anterior and posterior branches
.  The femoral nerve originates from the second, third, and fourth lumbar spinal nerves and innervates the anterior thigh muscles, hip and knee joints, and skin on the anteromedial thigh.
(5) The great auricular nerve exits the cervical plexus along the posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and it extends anteriorly along the lateral aspect of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the parotid gland superiorly, where it further divides into anterior and posterior branches
. The posterior branch supplies the skin over the mastoid process and lower external ear, while the anterior branch supplies the skin overlying the parotid gland and lower preauricular region.