Macaques are considered as a good model used to study the postcranial
skeleton in aging humans because they age at a rate of approximately 2.5-3.5 times that of humans (Tigges et al., 1988; Duncan et al., 2011).
The skull and the cervical vertebrae were dorsally and ventrally cleaned while the postcranial
skeleton was only cleaned dorsally to keep the bone elements in place.
bones of arthrodires PIN 2921/3267 (right posterior dorsolateral, PDL) and PIN 2921/3268 (an indeterminate fragment of the arthrodire dermal plate) were prepared manually.
Despite considerable sexual dimorphism in the postcranial
skeleton (Dolgov 1961, 1985, Brown & Twigg 1970), it is generally accepted that the skull does not exhibit any dimorphism.
Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify postcranial
bones in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra.--Journal of Archaeological Science, 31: 11, 2881-2905.
Cranofacial configuration and postcranial
development of a hydrocephalic child (ca 2500 B.C.-500 A.D.): with a review of cases and comment on diagnostic criteria.
africanum (Bou Hanifia, 10.5 Ma), while advanced in cheek tooth crown height, also has skull and postcranial
features recalling North American Connohipparion (Bernor and White, 2009; Bernor et al., 2010).
2012; Holliday and Hilton 2010), others show that postcranial
morphology can be retained from ancestral groups for several millennia thus informing about processes related to population history (Holliday 1997; Holliday and Falsetti 1995).
Discovery of archaeocete specimens with well-preserved postcranial
material permits quantitative comparative analyses that allow inferences about locomotor capabilities to be made.
Comparatively little of the chapter is devoted to the postcranial
skeleton, but the discussion of osteological correlates of soft tissue structures (e.g., muscles, baleen, brain) is welcome.
In an attempt to capture the full extent of variation, Balkwill and Cumbaa (1992) included every postcranial
element and provide 192 quantifiable, osteological characters for comparing Bison, represented by 27 individuals of B.